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Copyright, 1929, by 


Whose interest and help have done much to 
assist me in the solution of school problems 


This book is the result of eight years of study, experi- 
ence and experimentation in evening school organization, 
administration and teaching. It is offered as a humble be- 
ginning in an educational field almost untouched. It is 
hoped that it will lead to further efforts in the spread of 
adult evening education, and to more extensive literature 
in this field. 

The cosmopolitan aspect of evening school offerings is 
emphasized. The subjects offered should be in harmony 
with local needs and commensurate with the size of the 
community. However, a broad point of view should be 
maintained toward meeting as wide a range of educa- 
tional needs as is possible. 

The point of making evening schools quickly respon- 
sive to current educational needs is likewise emphasized. 
If evening schools are to serve most effectively, they must 
be adaptable to change in offerings, subject-matter and 
class organization. They should, however, hold to all the 
advances made and the lessons learned. A guiding prin- 
ciple in their conduct should be to meet all of the educa- 
tional problems of all of the adults of a community so 
far as that is practicable. Evening schools might be and 
have been called opportunity schools. 

This book is written with the hope that it will be of 
help to three distinct groups of people. The first is stu- 
dents in colleges of education, normal schools and teach- 



ers' colleges, majoring in the field of administration, both 
general and vocational. The second group is composed of 
principals, directors and other evening school officials. 
The third important group is superintendents of schools 
in medium-sized and small-sized cities and villages, and 
principals of consolidated rural schools. It is in the hands 
of these officials that a considerable degree of future 
evening school extension lies. The field in which these 
educators work is still largely untouched by evening edu- 
cation. This book shows, it is hoped, that evening schools 
are feasible even in small communities. 



We are accustomed to regard organized education as a 
service for youth only, but the adult also has needs and 
rights which are largely neglected or ignored, so far as 
publicly supported education is concerned. Nothing 
proves this statement more conclusively than the growth 
of the correspondence school movement, which in the 
year 1924 provided more than 1,500,000 students with 
their only available means of training. This represents 
the struggling efforts of adults to secure at large expense 
and by the least effective method for most of them the 
help which they should be able to get at public expense 
in their own communities. 

In some States of the Union it is still illegal to expend 
public money for day-schools enrolling persons over 
twenty-one years of age. There are still on the statute 
books of some States legal barriers which hamper the use 
of such money for the general education of adults in 
evening classes. In some communities there has been a 
gratifying development of evening classes, especially in 
vocational education; but the number of these com- 
munities and the number of persons reached by this 
service is pitifully small when contrasted with the needs 
of our adult population. For ten years, States and local 
communities have had an opportunity to use federal 
moneys for evening extension classes in trades and in- 
dustries, home economics and agriculture, yet the total 


number reached by this service in 1926-1927 was less 
than 300,000 adults out of the total of many millions. 

The above statement does not ignore the fact that 
evening elementary schools, evening high schools and 
evening classes in industrial, home economics, commer- 
cial and agricultural subjects and university extension 
classes are increasing in number and are serving a grow- 
ing proportion of our adult population. When that fact 
is granted, however, the provisions thus far made as com- 
pared with the need, still remain tragically inadequate, 
although they constitute a somewhat heartening promise 
for the future. 

This apparent indifference to the problem is due to a 
number of causes, but the greatest of these is our failure 
to recognize that in this democracy we are dealing with 
a changing citizen in a changing environment, whose 
interests and needs never remain stationary but are con- 
stantly altering to meet new demands and new oppor- 

We have centered our attention upon the education of 
youth largely on the theory that young people constitute 
our future citizenship, and we have hopes of doing some- 
thing with them which will improve things in the next 
generation. Meanwhile, we have rather unconsciously 
assumed that it is too late to do anything for the present 
generation of adults, and that they are either so incom- 
petent or so unworthy as to make the attempt hopeless. 
Aside from the injustice of this policy, it is foolishly un- 
wise. The greatest immediate return to the State comes 
through the efficiency of its adult population. If the 
present situation shows anything, it shows that this conn- 


try needs social intelligence on the part of adults to meet 
its current problems. 

Still another factor which has delayed the present 
amazing rapid development of adult education has been 
the belief which is perhaps best phrased in the common 
saying that "he is too old to learn," or perhaps worse still, 
that "I am too old to learn." There has been a great deal 
of talk about childhood being the time to "learn" because 
then the mind is impressionable and plastic, but only a 
half truth has been stated. The implication is that adults 
cannot learn ! 

It is undeniably true that children learn easily, par- 
ticularly when the teaching process uses appropriate ac- 
tivities through which they learn to think by doing and 
learn to do by thinking. Their trouble is lack of experi- 
ence in real affairs as stuff with which to think. With 
their minds comparatively free from worry or accumu- 
lated experience, they do exhibit a readiness in memoriz- 
ing and recalling for a short while a large body of infor- 
mation. In other words, they build up short-time habits 
short-time associations of facts with which they have 
had no experience. Unfortunately, we do not establish 
habits of thinking in this way. We get them by thinking 
about real problems in the light of the real experiences 
of our own lives and with the help of the additional 
knowledge of others that bears on the matter in hand. 

Here every advantage lies with the adult. He is not 
interested in committing information or ideas to memory 
merely for examination purposes. He knows what he 
wants to get. Always, when he is free to choose, it is 
knowledge or skill that will help him to get ahead in life, 
or give him a better understanding, a better insight into 


those things which appeal to his interest, that he selects. 
In democracy's school he has been through the mill of 
real experience and he has a background of facts and 
ideas wich he did not possess as a child. Consequently, he 
is better equipped, has more ability, if you will, to learn, 
than in childhood or youth. Instead of being "too old to 
learn," he is ripe for learning, if by learning we mean 
efficient use of knowledge to solve problems straight 
thinking with real facts and ideas about real affairs. 

Recent studies by eminent psychologists confirm these 
statements. As learners, all of us probably reach our max- 
imum mental capability somewhere around the time 
when we become old enough to vote. On that level of 
mental vigor we remain for a considerable length of time, 
which varies greatly with different people and which also 
undoubtedly varies according to our health and physical 
condition. Dr. Thorndike is authority for the statement 
that when we drop away from this top level of mental 
efficiency we lose it very slowly at the rate, let us say, 
of about 1 per cent annually. Adults come to their full 
capacity to learn after life has given them the experience 
with which to learn! 

This only confirms what common sense teaches every 
man through his own experience and through the obser- 
vation of others. If adults could not learn, what would 
become of the world? Youth for dreaming and age for 
wisdom! Youth to fix habits of learning and maturity to 
use them to full advantage. All our days we learn. 

At birth we matriculate, but we "check out" only on 
the day when we keep our rendezvous with the grim 

Although men have always recognized in a way that 


they were learning and must constantly learn the vital 
things about their economic and civic problems, appar- 
ently they have been intimidated in the past, so far as 
organized instruction and "book learning" are concerned, 
by the oft repeated statement that "he is too old to 
learn." But millions have now come to realize that this is 
not true and are now engaged in laying the ghost of an 
old delusion. To-day it is safe to say that almost as many 
adults are pursuing some kind of systematic education as 
the total number of youth enrolled in our high schools 
and colleges. This is the other side of the picture of adult 
education ! 

As has already been pointed out, the movement to 
provide an extensive educational service for citizens has 
not yet received the support of public funds which it 
needs and deserves. Much has been accomplished through 
agricultural extension work, university extension classes 
and part-time and evening schools in local communities. 
But the need and the opportunity for publicly supported 
education for adults is so great that all which has been 
accomplished represents only a beginning. More than 
half of the organized training which employed citizens 
pursue is paid for out of their own pockets. 

Thus far the least progress in the development of edu- 
cational help for adults at public expense has been made 
by local communities, but even here we are on the eve 
of a pronounced forward movement. Most local evening 
classes are vocational in their content and aim, and are 
supported in part by State and national funds under the 
Vocational Education Act. Probably 90 per cent of all 
the organized education which adults are now pursuing 
is vocational. We need more of this kind of service, but 


we also need to develop in every American community 
opportunities for citizens to get similar educational help 
along every line of interest and responsibility. 

This means in many localities the establishment of the 
Cosmopolitan Evening School, the doors of which are 
open to give any group any education they want, whether 
vocational or general, at any time they want it. Such 
a school is in the truest sense of the word an Opportunity 
School. It provides opportuniy in a double way better 
opportunity for citizens to increase their efficiency and 
broaden thir lives, and wider opportunity for the schools 
to serve the whole community. 

This book undertakes to set up the case for the Cos- 
mopolitan Evening School and to provide public school 
men with information and suggestion concerning its many 
and difficult but fascinating problems. The author made 
a conspicuous success of such a school in a typical mid- 
western city of less than 40,000 inhabitants. Conse- 
quently, he has brought to his task a deep interest in the 
problem and a ripe experience in handling it. All those 
who are interested from any angle in adult education, 
and particularly in the place of the public school in the 
movement, will find this book of great interest and 



The author wishes first to note the educational vision 
of Paul R. Spencer, formerly Superintendent of Schools, 
St. Cloud, Minnesota; and W. W. Smith, formerly Presi- 
dent of the Board of Education. Because of their fore- 
sight and encouragement he had an unusual opportunity 
to study, experiment with and attack many problems 
involved in adult education. 

Credit is due Dean M. Schweickhard, State Supervisor 
<5f Industrial Education in Minnesota, for constructive 
and expert criticism of Chapter XII, "State and Federal 
Aid." The author wishes to acknowledge the valuable 
contribution of Dr. R. G. Reynolds, of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York, to the References at 
the close of Chapter IV, "Advertising." He is indebted to 
the Home Economics Division of the Minnesota State 
Department of Education for material quoted and so 
indicated in several instances. Professor J. V. Lynn of 
Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, and the State Board of 
Vocational Education, Des Moines, Iowa, were kind 
enough to permit the printing of extracts from Bulletin 
4 of the Evening School Series. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the careful reading 
and preliminary editing of the manuscript of this book 
by Margaretha Friese. 

He acknowledges the work on courses of study of Miss 
May Kohn, Mrs. L. B. Luther and Mr. N. W. Fisher, of 



the Evening School faculty, St. Cloud, Minnesota, ex- 
tracts from whose work have been made. 

Dr. Charles A. Prosser, who was chairman of the Sub- 
committee on Adult Education of the American Voca- 
tional Association, graciously permitted the author to 
extract from the Committee Report whatever material 
he desired which would complement or supplement that 
of the text. The material extracted comprises Appendix 
A. References have been made to it throughout the text. 
This acknowledgement is intended to include the Ameri- 
can Vocational Association, whose agent Dr. Prosser was 
in this instance. 

The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions 
of J. A. Starkweather, Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools, Duluth, Minnesota; A. R. Graham, Director of 
Vocational Education, Madison, Wisconsin; and B. G. 
Shackelford, Director, Division of School and Community 
Relations, St. Louis, Missouri, in the form of photo- 
graphs of evening school work and workers. The sources 
of these photographs (by cities) are noted in connection 
with their use. 

Credit for providing the administrative forms illus- 
trated in Appendix B is due A. R. Graham, Madison; 
H. C. Stillman, Director of the Opportunity School, 
Pueblo, Colorado; and to Miss Dorothy C. Enderis and 
Dr. W. W. Theisen of the Milwaukee Public Schools. 





















INDEX 383 






LOUIS) 30 


(DULUTH) 86 




(DULUTH) 120 


LUTH) -. ... 210 






1 Announcement of the St. Cloud (Minnesota) Public 

Evening School 45 

2 A Sample Front Page for an Advertising Leaflet . 

facing 46 

3 Another Evening School Announcement .... 47-48 

4 Pueblo (Colorado) Evening "Opportunity School" 

Announcement, Pages 1, 5 and 6 50 

5 Advertising Folder of Special Group Offerings, 5x6 

Inches, Pages 1 and 4 58 

6 . Evening School Announcement in a Newspaper Ad- 
vertisement 66-67 

7 Teacher's Weekly Report Form 81 

8 Evening School Enrolment Card 82-83 

9 Student's Record Card 84-85 

10 Cumulative Monthly Attendance Report .... 123 

11 Attendance Chart 132 

12 Evening School Certificate 135 



1 Enrolment Blank 358 

2 Class Card 359 

3 Registration Blank 360 

4 Teacher's Monthly Report of Pupils 361 

5 Teacher's Daily Class Report Blank 362 

6 Teacher's Service Card 363-364 

7 Local Pay-Roil Sheet facing 365 

8 Wisconsin State Pay-Roll 365 

9 Teacher's Application Blank 368 

10 Teacher's Notice of Appointment 369 

11 Enrolment Card 370 

12 Instructor's Daily Class Report 371 

13 Monthly Class Report Card, Pueblo, Colorado . 372-373 

14 Perfect Attendance Certificate 374 

15 Certificate of Attainment 376-377 

16 Registration Deposit Record 379 

17 Pupil Attendance Record 380 

18 Monthly Class Report of Enrolment and Attendance 381 

19 Monthly Enrolment and Attendance Report of 

Schools and Centers, Extension Department . 382 





Evening school instruction is one of the most impor- 
tant phases of adult education.! With the growing realiza- 
tion that a person's education is never completed, the 
extension of evening school instruction has been rapid 
in the last decade. This type of instruction makes a 
specific contribution to the movement for adult educa- 
tion in that it reaches many who would not otherwise be 
benefited. Richard R. Price, Director of the Extension 
Department of the University of Minnesota, has said that 
when many years hence, the history of the present age is 
written, the recognition of and interest and effort made 
in adult education in its many forms will take a prom- 
inent place. 

Because it is free, readily accessible and pleasant, and 
because its advantages are apparent, evening: school in- 
struction, effectively administered, can be made to reach 
almost any one in a community. It has grown to such 
an extent that it is no longer looked upon as an educa- 
tional appendage, but as an integral part of a school sys- 
tem. It can be thoroughly organized, administered and 



supervised. Once established, and after it has shown its 
worth, public opinion demands its retention and develop- 

The growth of what might well be called cosmopolitan 
evening schools (in comparison with cosmopolitan high 
schools) has somewhat paralleled that of the junior high 
school True, examples can be found of evening schools 
which have been in operation for many years, but refer- 
ence here is to the extensive growth in the last ten years. 

The advancement that has been made has come about 
by extensive trial-and-error procedure. Experimentation 
has been necessary. Up to the present time the literature 
that has appeared on the subject has been meager. It 
has recorded some attempts, it has set up aims and it has 
dealt with subject-matter and methods. Generally it 
has been scattered because of the variety of interests rep- 
resented in the evening schools. Usually it has appeared 
in periodicals. 

The writer realizes only too well the long distance that 
remains to be traveled before evening schools are fully 
as effective as day-schools. 1 The two greatest and most 
inclusive problems are (1) organization and administra- 
tion and (2) teacher-training and supervision. In this 
volume an attempt will be made to point out some les- 
sons learned in organization and administration, with 
just a suggestion of what is included in the field of 
teacher-training and supervision. The writer makes this 
offering humbly, knowing it to be merely a beginning/ 
He makes it in the hope that it will encourage those who 
have not attempted evening school work to do so, and 

1 Bead "Efficiency Factors in Adult Education/' Cammltee Report, 
Appendix A, pp. 335ff. 


that all who are interested in this work will find some 
phases treated which may be suggestive to them. 

The data in this book, the deductions arrived at from 
data and experimentation and the lessons learned from 
observation come from eight years of experience in even- 
ing school teaching and administration. The system has 
grown in that time from two classes (Americanization 
and trade) of sixty pupils to a cosmopolitan evening 
school system of 660 pupils, and two centers. During 
those years the population of the city increased from 
16,000 to 22,000. 

There are much larger evening schools, but the prob- 
lems underlying the organization and administration of 
these are to a considerable extent a multiplication of 
basic activities. Although the problems of evening school 
organization and administration in large cities are more 
complex, they are mitigated somewhat because adequate 
funds are usually more readily procurable, and there are 
models to follow. The writer hopes to show the desira- 
bility and feasibility of having evening schools in small 
cities and even in communities in the village category. 

Evening School Pupils 

Above compulsory school age. To determine the 
nature and objectives of and possibilities in evening 
school instruction, one must first study the individuals 
who are to receive it. The first and basic consideration is 
that they are above the age of compulsory all-day school 
attendance. This age varies in different States, but is 
generally from fourteen to sixteen years. In a very few 
states it is seventeen. The only exception to this mini- 
mum age-requirement for evening school attendance 


should be the pupil under the minimum compulsory day- 
school age who is employed by reason of his securing a 
work permit. This condition may exist in States which do 
not have part-time laws. 

In this same connection it is also of importance to note 
that the federal Smith-Hughes Act, which grants aid in 
three subsidized fields of vocational education, specifically 
names sixteen years as the minimum age for entrance to 
evening industrial classes. Pupils in these classes must 
have entered upon the work of a trade or industrial pur- 
suit. The fact that such individuals must be employed is 
in itself a guarantee that they will be of some minimum 
age, and are in reality young adults. 

Statistics from the Federal Board for Vocational Edu- 
cation show that at the beginning of the operation of 
this law, the average age for evening industrial pupils 
was between twenty-three and twenty-four years. Figures 
in a cosmopolitan evening school in St. Cloud, Minne- 
sota, show two-thirds of the pupils to be over twenty-one 
years of age. 

Subject-matter, methods and administration planned 
for adults. It has been pointed out that the majority of 
evening school pupils have reached adulthood. This is 
an important consideration in the determination of sub- 
ject-matter, methods and administration. Unless it is 
kept in mind constantly, instruction cannot succeed. All 
of these items will be dealt with in detail in later chap- 
ters. They are but touched upon here to secure a proper 
perspective of this type of school. 

The subject-matter of some courses may be of a higher 
level than is found in high school classes because of the 
maturity of the pupils. An advanced home-making course 


in tailoring is an example. In other instances work of 
high school level may be covered in a briefer time than 
is required in that school. A certain French class did 
one semester's work in about forty-five hours of class- 
room instruction, or one half of the time required in the 
day high school. Grade-school classes and Americaniza- 
tion work are usually covered very rapidly because of 

In commercial, home-making and trade classes, only 
such subject-matter as measures fully with that of the 
occupation taught will stand the test of the pupils. If 
this standard is not reached, the class will rapidly dwin- 
dle in size. 

Several factors enter into adequate methods of instruc- 
tion. Briefly stated, some of the most important follow. 
Instruction must be intensive and to the point, must 
provide for considerable pupil activity and must be pre- 
sented in a cooperative spirit. A position of superiority 
assumed by the teacher is a sure way to kill the interest 
and spirit of an evening class. The teacher should not be 
too familiar with his pupils in his methods of teaching, 
for he should command respect, but his spirit of presen- 
tation and conduct of instruction may be summed up by 
the sentence: "Come on, fellows; let's go." 

From the administrative standpoint the adult pupil 
requires special consideration. The psychology behind the 
short-unit course is an important example. In all situa- 
tions where the school administrator or teacher comes in 
contact with the pupil, it must be on a businesslike basis. 
The pupil attends only because he is sure he is getting 
something of special value to him. Many details of ad- 
ministration found in day-schools do not appear at alL 


Discipline is one such. In the writer's experience, he has 
dismissed but one pupil for conduct. Other details found 
in compulsory day-school administration would be petty 
in an evening school. Such actions as are necessary can 
be accomplished without irritation if the approach is 
made properly. Some of these might be connected with 
collection of material fees, smoking in a school building, 
use of equipment and return to school after long 
absence. 2 

Main Objective 

The first purpose of evening schools was to continue 
and supplement (and sometimes to provide) elementary 
education for those who had not had, or who had ne- 
glected early educational advantages. To-day, evening 
schools are looked upon as an essential part of any scheme 
of education, either vocational or academic, that aims to 
reach all the people. By vocational education is meant 
any form of education which is planned to fit an indi- 
vidual to enter into and pursue a recognized, profitable 
occupation, including home-making. 

It may be said, then, that evening schools are primar- 
ily for those who are or who feel that they are handi- 
capped vocationally, academically or culturally. These 
individuals are both native and alien. To meet the ex- 
pressed needs of these people in all their variety and 
form is the main objective of evening instruction. These 
needs cannot always be met because of administrative 
factors. Herein lies one of the big problems of successful 
administrative planning. 

B The significance of teaching adult persons is clearly indicated in the 
Report of the American Vocational Association Committee. Appendix 
A, p. 291. 


With the broad conception of the main purpose of 
evening school instruction in mind, it is necessary that 
administrators study the local situation. They must plan 
specific types of work or groups of subjects centered 
around the vocational, academic or cultural activities and 
interests of mankind. A selection must be made of those 
classes and courses of study which seem most applicable 
to the local conditions. 

Types of Education Offered 

Extensive field. If the statement is accepted that 
evening school work may find its source in any of the 
vocational, academic or cultural activities of mankind, 
we may expect the offerings to fall into many groups of 
subjects. These are just as varied as those found in a 
modern elementary school, junior high school or cos- 
mopolitan senior high school, but they are not more 
varied. These types of education, around which classes 
are formed and courses built, are listed <below: 


English and citizenship 
Trade and industrial 

Extension and preparatory 
Vocational home-making 

Extension and preparatory 
Agricultural (extension) 
Elementary school subjects 
Physical education 
Art (fine and "hand-craft") 
High school academic subjects 
Junior college subjects 


A study of the above types of instruction quickly re- 
veals the fact that, taken in groups, all of them are open 
to both men and women. (Men cooks have been enrolled 
in cooking classes.) The relative importance of these vari- 
ous types of education varies with the needs of individual 
communities. A more extended discussion of these phases, 
together with a brief consideration of each type of work, 
appears in Chapter IX. 

Future Possibilities 

Recognition of present weaknesses. No better way 
of considering future possibilities can be found than first 
to analyze present weaknesses. Some of these weaknesses 
are inherent in the organization and cannot be remedied 
to any great extent. Others are not inherent, but are the 
result of rapid growth and experimentation with subject- 
matter and methods in a new field of education. These 
can and will be remedied. 

Inherent weaknesses. Two of the most evident weak- 
nesses which are inherent are the voluntary nature of 
attendance and the time of day at which the school 
operates. Attendance is of course wholly voluntary. Many 
pupils come with a definite purpose, some have to be 
assisted in forming such a purpose and some come with 
no purpose at all. The latter come because friends do, 
because they have nothing else to do or because the school 
offers a pleasant place to spend the evenings. However, 
all come of their own volition. If those who come with a 
purpose do not get the instruction they desire, they drop 
out. If, in the other cases, the attraction of the school 
pales or other outside attractions appear, the other group 
of pupils drops out either temporarily or permanently. 


It must not be interpreted that there are no standards 
of punctuality or attendance because of the voluntary 
nature of the school. Most of the pupils are conscientious 
and have a good influence on others who are not. Im- 
provement in these matters can be accomplished. 

The second inherent weakness, the time of day at 
which the school operates, can be modified only in a very 
few isolated instances, such as afternoon classes in voca- 
tional home-making subjects. It is only because the school 
operates after work hours that the attendance of those 
who take advantage of it in greatest numbers is made 
possible. It cannot be denied that the intellectual or the 
physical energies of most people are at a low ebb after 
the day's work and the evening meal are over. It must 
be remembered, however, that much of the evening school 
instruction (intellectual, physical or manipulative) may 
be and often is different from the activities pursued dur- 
ing the day. This change is in itself often refreshing. The 
many who do attend with a purpose have the factor of 
interest to spur them on. They realize, as evidenced by 
their attendance, that the person who measures his effort 
by the time-clock gets nowhere. The impediment of time 
of operation, so far as mental and physical effort is con- 
cerned, does have numerous modifying influences. 

Weaknesses not inherent. Among non-inherent 
weaknesses, the chief one is lack of trained teachers. The 
rapid development of evening schools has required the 
employment of teachers not specifically trained for teach- 
ing adults. This defect can be remedied. It will be con- 
sidered at greater length in Chapters XI and XIII. 

Closely associated with the problem of improperly 
trained teachers is the problem of supervision. Adminis- 


trators usually have little time to devote to improving 
teachers. They should have very much more. The usual 
methods of supervision, namely, class visitation followed 
by constructive suggestion, teachers 7 meetings and mime- 
ographed teaching helps, can be augmented by another 
method. This is to improve teachers through directed 
work on their courses of study. This method can often be' 
followed with a minimum amount of individual super- 
vision. It produces concrete and workabje courses of 
study. It throws responsibility for continued effort upon 
the teachers. It keeps the faculty "stirred up" and think- 
ing. In brief, it accomplishes its chief purpose of super- 
vision through teacher training in service, together with 
the production of organized courses of stucly. 

A third weakness has been touched upon, namely, 
courses of study. Frequently these have been very gen- 
eral in nature. They should be intensive and specific. In 
the so-called practical subjects they should be closely 
related to the actual daily experiences of the factory, 
office, business or home. This deficiency can be removed. 

All that is accomplished toward removing these weak- 
nesses means the upbuilding of evening school instruc- 
tion. The future possibilities of truly effective evening 
instruction are closely associated with the betterment of 
these factors which can be changed. 3 

General improvement of citizenry. Every thinker rec- 
ognizes the desirability of and the need for the continued 
development of a more intelligent citizenry in our democ- 
racy. A future possibility which may confidently be ex- 
pected, though not measured at the present moment, is 

3 For an excellent picture of present conditions in the field of adult 
education, see Appendix A, pp. 291ff. 


that such development may come through adult educa- 
tion in all of its forms. In this development evening 
schools take a prominent place. This is due to the large 
numbers who come in contact with them, to their cosmo- 
student body, and to the variety of interests 
may find a place for development. Extensive groups 
adults who are developing, be it intellectually phy^ic- 
or vocationally, undoubtedly are better actual or 
/potential citizens than those whose lives are at a stand- 
still in these matters. 

/ Life's problems in the modern world are becoming 
ignore and more complex. They are ever changing. To 
Mceep pace with life to-day requires constant educational 
effort of some form. 

The evening school offers the opportunity to many who 
ycould not otherwise avail themselves of instruction de- 
sired. Many Americans recognize this complex and chang- 
ing condition in our life, and also the part that evening 
schools are playing in meeting it. No other interpretation 
can be made of the fact that large numbers are to be 
found enrolled in these schools, even up to the ages of 
seventy, seventy-five and eighty-odd years. 

Dr. Charles A. Prosser, in addressing the Louisville 
meeting of the American Vocational Association (1926), 
particular emphasis upon the need for adultv^educa- 
in our democracy. He indicated some of the serious 
problems confronting us. He felt that adult education is 
only means of saving the nation from some of the 
errors into which it has now fallen. Part-time education 
alone, he thought, was being questioned as a means of 
doing this. He expressed it as his belief that the "safety 
factor" in our national life was increasing materially as 

/ 1 



adults studied, be it individually, collectively in groups, 
in evening schools, in part-time schools, in extension 
classes or through correspondence work. 4 

A conception of the importance of evening school work 
in this program of improvement may be formed from data 
in the 1922-1924 Biennial Survey of Education of the 
United States Commissioner of Education. A summary of 
public evening school attendance in cities of over 10,000 
population for the school year 1923-1924 follows. The 
total evening school attendance for that year would of 
course be greater if cities under 10,000 population were 

Cities Students 

Elementary High Vocational 

10,000 to 30,000 41,911 12,935 8,207 

30,000 to 100,000 39,055 62,158 37,695 

100,000 and more 181,099 283,439 94,129 

Total 262,065 358,532 140,031* 

Grand total 760,628. 

* See reference to this number on p. 167. 

Moral and social values. The moral and social worth 
of evening school instruction cannot always be measured 
adequately. Outward evidences may be taken as a guide 
to tentative conclusions at least. The writer has known 
many young and middle-aged men over a considerable 
period of years who through attendance upon physical 
education and other classes in evening schools have found 
an outlet for energy and self-expression in a wholesome 

* Appendix A contains much on the social philosophy of adult 
education; see especially pp. 306ff. 


The writer has likewise seen the social worth arising 
from the establishment of evening schools. Adults nat- 
urally become set in their ways and manners of living, 
in their thoughts, likes and prejudices. As a great leveler 
of races, political ideals, creeds and economic strata in 
society, the evening school must be placed in a front rank. 
With better social understandings among the adult citi- 
zens of a community come also 'better civic understand- 
ing and growth. 

The more intangible potentialities for good which may 
result from evening school work in the economic, politi- 
cal, cultural, vocational, moral and social development of 
the citizens of a community are not always possible of 
exact measurement. Evidences of such development are 
not wanting, however. 


"Here the young man has learned his trade and left the 
streets bepause he is no longer idle; the crippled man has been 
trained to take his place not through sympathy but by the 
efficiency of his work; the foreigner has learned to speak Eng- 
lish, has made friends, and is taking out his naturalization 
papers; his boy is learning a trade in the school and his daugh- 
ter is learning to cook American food; the misfit has trained 
for and entered into the work for which he is naturally 
adapted; the apprentice enjoys the day's work because he 
knows the WHY of what he is doing; the girl in business 
enters on her work with assurance because she knows that 
she cau do it; the working woman looks forward to her hour 
with books; the illiterate has learned to read and the world 
of books is opening up to him; the man has finished his high 
school and may go on in his desired profession." From The 
Opportunity School (Denver) , p. 26. 



1. Explain how the pupils of a cosmopolitan evening school 
represent a fairly accurate cross-section of the population 
of a community. 

2. Justify a cosmopolitan evening school. Why does it have 
greater justification in many instances than one which 
offers but one general type of work? 

3. Explain how all types of education are of equal im- 
portance taken as a whole. Why are some types of edu- 
cation of greater importance in one community than in 
another? Illustrate with several examples. 

4. What effect does the fact that the pupils are adults 
have on subject-matter, methods and administration? 

5. Outline and explain the importance of some of the rather 
intangible results of evening education, evidenced but 
possibly not measured, as they affect the general intel- 
ligence of a great body of citizenry in the American 


Adult Education in a Community, Buffalo Educational Coun- 
cil, American Association for Adult Education (New 
York, 1927). 

Agricultural Education, Bulletin No. 13, Federal Board for 
Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Alderman, L. R., Public Education for Adults in the Years 
1924-1926, Bulletin, 1927, No. 18. United States Bu- 
reau of Education (Washington, D. C., 1927). 

, Public Evening Schools for Adults, United States 

Bureau of Education (Washington, D. C., 1927). 

Clark, Lillian P., Federal Textbook on Citizenship Training, 
Bureau of Naturalization, United States Department of 
Labor (Washington, D. C.). 


Clark, Lillian P., Teaching Our Language to Beginners, Bureau 
of Naturalization, United States Department of Labor 
(Washington, D. C.). 

Evening Industrial Schools, Federal Board for Vocational 
Education (Washington, D. C.). Out of print. 

Fisher, D. C., Why Stop Learning? (Harcourt, Brace and 
Company, New York, 1927.) 

Hart, Joseph K., Adult Education (Thomas J. Crowell Com- 
pany, New York, 1927). 

Home Economics Education, Bulletin No. 28, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Johndroe, S. G., "The Overtimers," Industrial Arts Maga- 
zine (November, 1925), 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, Kansas State Teachers College 
(Pittsburg, Kansas, 1927) . 

Payne, Arthur F., Organization of Evening Vocational Classes, 
General Extension Division, University of Minnesota 
(Minneapolis, Minnesota). 

Lynn, J. V., and Others, The Evening Class and Its Teacher, 
Special Series No. 1, Iowa State Board for Vocational 
Education (Des Moines, Iowa, 1927). 

Syllabi for Elementary Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 1, State 
Department of Education (St. Paul, Minnesota) . 

Thorndike, E. L., Bregman, E. 0., Tilton, J. W., and Wood- 
ward, E., Adult Learning (The Macmillan Company, 
New York, 1928). 

Trade and Industrial Education, Bulletin No. 17, Federal 
Board for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.)- 

Trade Extension Courses in Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 14, 
Board for Vocational Education (Springfield, Illinois) . 

Warner, Charles F., "Development of Industrial and Techni- 
cal Instruction in Evening Schools," Industrial Edu~ 
cation Magazine (February, 1925). 



The answer to the question, "Shall there be an evening 
school or evening schools in a community?" depends on 
many factors which must be carefully studied. 1 

Size of Community 

Generally speaking, the size of the community should 
effect the situation very little. Any community which has 
a public school may have an evening school. It is not even 
necessary to have classes held in a school building. They 
may be held in homes and other places. In Minnesota, 
citizenship and elementary school classes may be organ- 
ized in rural districts and receive State aid if the classes 
have an average attendance of but four. 

The rural school, as the center of a school district, or 
the village school, as the center of a larger village and 
rural district, may become the centers for vocational 
agricultural classes and home-making classes. Such classes 
may also be sponsored and operated by States, counties, 
local communities, philanthropic organizations and by 
associations and clubs having a unity of interest and pur- 
pose. The "moonlight schools" of one section of the South 

1 The basic reasons for acceptance of adult education as an integral 
part of education are listed and discussed in Appendix A, p. 291; 
and relative values of adult and juvenile education on p. 305 of the 
same Appendix. 



are a specific example. Vocational agricultural extension 
work is also sponsored by industrial organizations such as 
the International Harvester Company. 

The chief difference between small, medium-sized and 
large cities is often one of degree only. The number of 
schools and classes and variety of offerings are the chief 
factors of difference in evening schools. The large cities 
have one slight advantage in some subjects, both prac- 
tical and academic. This is that such cities, because of 
numbers of pupils, may frequently make classes more 
specifically bounded in regard to subject-matter. In 
smaller communities pupils of at least slightly varying 
degrees of interest and purpose may have to be placed in 
a common class, and the instruction may have to be made 
slightly more general in order to reach all. 

Need for Americanization 

The recognition of the extreme need for some method 
of assisting in the assimilation of great numbers of aliens 
up to 1914 led to the organization of evening classes in 
Americanization. This movement in many instances is 
responsible for calling attention to the possibilities or 
more general evening construction. Americanization 
classes rapidly became well organized and comprehen- 
sively conducted. They centered attention on adult edu- 
cation and served as guides for teaching methods applied 
to adults. 

There are evidences that the need for Americanization 
has passed its peak in some sections. In the experience of 
the writer, the restrictions placed upon immigration by 
the federal laws of 1921 and 1924 are now becoming no- 


ticeable through a decline in the numbers enrolled in tKe 
citizenship and English classes for aliens, and in the 
numbers applying for citizenship papers. As long as im- 
migration at all continues, however, there will be need for 
Americanization classes in those localities where for- 
eigners settle in considerable numbers. Principal among 
such localities are great industrial centers, mining com- 
munities and transportation centers. 

Another condition which the writer has noted in the 
past two or three years, and which should be gratifying 
to all, is that those aliens enrolling in Americanization 
classes are of a fairly high intellectual level. Most of them 
have had at least the equivalent of an eight-grade edu- 

Other Educational Facilities 

Another factor which sometimes needs careful thought 
and investigation is that of other available educational 
facilities in a community. There should be little or no 
duplication of effort, especially in other than large cities. 
Some of the educational programs which might parallel 
possible evening school instruction are provided by the 
following: Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. classes, employee 
training programs of big corporations or public utilities 
companies like the Bell Telephone, classes operated by 
such organizations as the business and professional wo- 
men's clubs, and the opportunities offered in endowed 
schools (principally vocational in character). University 
extension courses also may enter into a local situation. 
All of these should be taken into consideration. 

Correspondence school courses have little effect upon 
the possibilities of evening courses. Part-time laws affect 


the numbers enrolled only slightly, as evening students 
are almost wholly adults of over eighteen years. In deter- 
mining whether or not there should be an evening school, 
all of the possible local avenues of instruction should be 
scrutinized. It is almost inconceivable that a situation 
could be found where all the common types of evening 
instruction already existed through the efforts of other 

School Exodus 

The relative level at which great numbers leave the 
day-school may be an influencing factor in determining 
whether there shall be an evening school or not. Whether 
large numbers of pupils leave at fourteen, fifteen, sixteen 
or seventeen years, or on completion of the eighth grade 
is an important consideration. Early leaving of the all- 
day school does not mean that these pupils might be 
expected immediately in evening schools, even in those 
States which do not have part-time schools. It does mean, 
however, that many pupils may be expected later who 
have reached some very definite level of academic de- 
velopment. It may affect the types of subjects offered, 
together with their subject-matter and methods. 

Special Needs of Industrial Workers 

When an important group of industrial workers needs 
improvement in its work, it may fall to the evening school 
to accomplish it, if no other agency can or will do it. 
The apprenticeship system of training in building and 
industrial trades is almost quite generally down. New 


workers, often wrongly called apprentices, frequently 
need and can be given specific trade instruction or pos- 
sibly "related subjects" which will benefit them in their 
work. They are as much entitled to this at public expense 
as the more fortunate person who attends an academic 
or professional college in a publicly supported State uni- 

The following example aptly illustrates the point. St. 
Cloud, Minnesota, is one of the two greatest granite- 
producing centers in the United States. A large part of 
the work takes the form of memorials. The designs of 
these memorials were for many years frequently quite 
crude. There was no organization which could or would 
take up the work of bettering this condition. The evening 
school organized and for eight years has operated a large 
class in monumental lettering and design. It is attended 
by granite-cutters, who get a better understanding and 
appreciation of the elements of design particularly ap- 
plied to granite as a material and to memorial work. A 
few embryo designers are also enrolled. The work sup- 
plements the daily employment of the workers in both 
cases. It is a federally aided Smith-Hughes class. A notice- 
able betterment is apparent in the design of monuments 
and in the carving of letters and ornaments. Numerous 
members of these classes trace promotions to their attend- 
ance and training in the class. 

In small agricultural communities the special needs of 
farmers and the degree of development of their farms may 
form the source of an incentive for agricultural studies of 
a similar nature. The special needs of trade or business 
may also become the starting point for special commercial 


Women's Organizations 

Where women are well organized and show an enter- 
prising spirit in their club work, one may expect to find 
good soil for the seed of evening classes. Interest fre- 
quently grows rapidly and becomes a demand. Parent- 
teachers' associations are premier examples of this type 
of women's clubs. 

The scope of the interests and desires for evening in- 
struction may be extended and varied. Once an evening 
class is tried and found to be worth while, many members 
become pupils year after year. They frequently suggest 
new classes. It is always a good thing to consult with 
women leaders in various groups when the question of 
establishing an evening school is under consideration. 

Financial Considerations 

The ability of a district to finance an evening school 
is, of course, a matter which must be investigated. Teach- 
ers must be paid, as must a full-time or part-time admin- 
istrator; and sometimes additional help must be em- 
ployed, some special equipment or books may be needed, 
money will be required for advertising and there will be 
overhead expenses for light and heat. These items seem 
numerous, but in their sum total they need not be great. 
The expenditure of a few hundred or a few thousand 
dollars will mean contact with a relatively large number 
of people over varying periods of time. 

If evening schools are once organized, even in a limi- 
ted degree, preferably with a cosmopolitan point of view, 


and if they are administered effectively and taught by 
the best teachers available, they become permanent in- 
stitutions. They become as much a public institution as 
are day-schools and churches. The writer has seen this 
type of school grow in favor of the point where to go to 
evening school was the accepted thing to do. 

If a school is effectively operated, the question of 
financing it may be a debatable question only for the first 
year. Because it enters intimately into the lives of so 
many, the general acceptance of it as an item in the 
school budget frequently goes without question. 

Special Aid 

Closely associated with the financing of evening classes 
is the question of special aid. This may be secured from 
State and federal funds combined for some classes, and 
for others from State funds alone, in some States. Even- 
ing industrial, agricultural and home-making classes, 
when they meet certain requirements, may be aided from 
combined State and federal funds. Part of the teachers' 
salaries is refunded to school-boards as an incentive to 
promote these types of education. The exact amount of 
aid for evening school work of this type may vary in 
different States. There is also the possibility that funds 
in any State may have to be prorated because of the 
extensive work carried on in the State. 

Physical School Facilities 

A factor which may not affect the entire question of 
whether or not there shall be an evening school, but 


which may affect the possibility of specific classes, is the 
problem of available school facilities. These include class- 
rooms, laboratories and shops; adequate seating and 
teaching equipment for all these and adequate lighting 
for night work. It has been pointed out that evening 
classes need not of necessity be conducted in school 
buildings. Some trade and industrial, home-making, and 
Americanization classes may well be held at centralized 
points or where the best possible facilities are available. 

Adequately Trained Teachers 

This question must be investigated before plans for 
specific classes in an evening school can be formulated. 
Day-school teachers are handicapped because of fatigue 
from day classes. Some classes, however, can be taught 
effectively only by such teachers. Other classes frequently 
find their best teachers in the occupational field. These 
latter must be experts in their respective fields and must 
also be aJble to teach others or be willing to learn to teach 
others. Over a considerable period of years the writer has 
.observed that in a cosmopolitan evening school the ratio 
has approached a half-and-half point between these two 
sources of evening teachers. 

Accepting Available Opportunity for 
Community Service 

Public school authorities must sometimes assume en- 
tire responsibility for inaugurating and offering to their 
constituents evening school instruction with its resulting 


benefits. They may have to be the sole initiators and 
sponsors of the work. In their executive capacity they 
should know of evening schools, their aims, work and 
results. They should know and forsee not only whether 
this type of education will be feasible, but also whether 
it is necessary and desirable. In this respect the greatest 
responsibility rests upon the superintendent, who usually 
is and rightly should be the adviser and instigator of 
educational advancement authorized by the local boards 
of education. 

In nearly all medium-sized and large cities in the 
United States, the evening school in greater or less de- 
gree is now an established institution. In England, too, 
this school is well established. Reports for 1927 indicate 
an enrolment in London evening schools in excess of 
100,000 persons. 

Two phases of this movement which need development 
are the improvement in every way of schools already 
established, and the extension of good work to com- 
munities which have not yet been benefited by it (usu- 
ally smaller ones). 

What is effective and valuable for one community is 
usually likewise beneficial for another. Because one com- 
munity cannot offer as extensive opportunities in evening 
instruction as another is no argument that some work 
should not be undertaken. The special needs of a com- 
munity can be studied and limited offerings of a high 
caliber provided. If funds are limited, the offerings may 
vary from year to year as conditions change. Few school 
districts are so poor that they cannot provide some form 
of adult education for those who desire to improve them- 



1. Suppose you were interested in establishing some type 
or types of evening school instruction in a mid-western 
agricultural community of 500 to 2,500 population. Name 
the possible factors you would study in arriving at a 
conclusion regarding the feasibility of your plans. How 
would you approach the study of each factor? 

2. In a like manner, how would you attempt to reach a 
satisfactory conclusion regarding the feasibility of in- 
augurating evening classes in a city of 10,000 to 30,000 
population with combined industrial, transportation, 
agricultural and commercial interests? 

3. Do the same thing for a city of industrial, commercial 
and transportation interests with a population in excess 
of 50,000. 



Where an Evening School Has Already 
Been Established 

It is not a difficult task to continue to formulate intel- 
ligent plans for an evening school which has been estab- 
lished. Answers to the following questions pertaining to 
proposed subjects might throw valuable light on whether 
a given subject should or should not 'be offered in any 
given year. 

Has a subject been long established in the evening school 
with rather uniform and constant attendance? 

What results have been obtained from a pupil survey of 
subjects desired, taken the previous year? 

What conclusions result from an anaylsis of attendance rec- 
ords of new classes established the previous year? 

Do the records of classes offered for several years show any 
indication that dropping the subject for a year or two might 
be desirable? 

Can legitimate grounds be cited as evidence that new 
classes proposed by the school authorities would fill a recog- 
nized need? 

What investigation has been made of the feasibility of or- 
ganizing new classes at the request of individuals or groups, 
and what are the findings of such a survey? 

An extended discussion of these and other points 
concerned in the progressive development of evening 
schools is reserved for Chapter VIII. 



Where an Evening School Has Not Yet Been Organized 

Variety and number of subjects offered. When an 
evening school is being organized for the first time, some 
of the subjects offered may be fairly well assured of a 
place in the program. If the school is to be small or 
conservatively planned, the subjects offered will un- 
doubtedly be largely determined by the expressed wishes 
of those who ask for, or by those who propose to offer, 
evening instruction. If the school is to be organized on 
a larger scale, the school officials will be required to select 
many of the courses to be offered, the selection being 
based upon such data, observation and requests as may 
be available. 1 

When evening schools are established in a community 
of some size for the first time, the general public usually 
does not know how much it wants such instruction, or in 
what subjects, if any, it wants it. If subjects beyond those 
fairly well assured of a place are to be offered, it is desir- 
able that they be selected from diversified fields and 
interests. Attendance the first year may be taken then 
as a fairly good indication of the interests and desires of 
a variety of types of individuals, even though specific 
subjects offered are not exactly what are desired, or what 
would prove most beneficial. The response to a variety 
of types of evening school offerings may be rather start- 
ling, as it has been to the writer. It is only by proposing 
subjects that the demand for them may be judged. 

a A comprehensive list of special problems of adult education, to- 
gether with suggestive remedies, as those problems affect the school 
authorities, general public, and prospective pupils, is found in Appendix 
A, pp. 291ff. 


After a beginning English class and a trade class had 
been conducted for a number of years, it was determined 
to offer a variety of subjects to see if the citizens gen- 
erally wished evening school education. Accordingly sev- 
enteen subjects meant to appeal to a variety of interests 
were planned for and extensively advertised. It was 
hoped that 175 to 200 persons would avail themselves of 
the opportunities offered. Provision was made for enroll- 
ing about this number in a study hall. On the enrolment 
night the study hall rapidly filled to overflowing, and so 
did the corridors of the school. The meeting had to be 
adjourned to the school auditorium. The initial enrol- 
ment in the various subjects was well over 500. It was 
plainly evident that the old and young of both sexes and 
in all stations in life in this particular community were 
vitally interested in evening education. By offering a 
wide range of subjects to the people the school authori- 
ties quickly learned of the undreamed-of demand for this 
form of adult education. The stamp of approval was like- 
wise indelibly placed upon budget provisions for this 

Analysis of local needs and possibilities. A study of 
the needs of individuals and groups in a community, and 
of the financial and housing aspects of an evening school 
discussed in the previous chapter will be of value in 
determining the number of subjects offered, and of giving 
preference to certain ones. Among these factors discussed 
in Chapter II were: size and financial strength of the 
community, the needs of dominant occupational groups, 
need for Americanization, educational offerings of other 
institutions or groups, relative level of school exodus, 
available housing facilities and capable teachers. Any or 

Flower Modeling Why Quit Learning? (McKinley Night School, 

St. Louis) 

Learning to Do by Doing (McKinley Night School, St. Louis) 


all of these factors may influence the offerings and pre- 
liminary planning. 

Advice and suggestions from outside the schools. 
School authorities may well make an effort to secure the 
reactions of groups and individuals to proposed offerings, 
and to get advice or suggestions as to desirable subjects. 
Such action creates good feeling and helps to insure suc- 
cess for the school, even though no workable suggestions 
are offered, and approval of special courses for evening 
education in general is all that comes of it. Such contacts 
may well be made with labor groups or leaders, industrial 
associations or leaders, school and home associations, 
women's clubs, church groups, men's service clubs, the 
press and public officials. 

In addition to collecting data, information and sug- 
gestions locally, it is not amiss to observe the experiences 
with evening instruction in surrounding communities. In 
a like manner, the offerings of cities of the same size and 
similar interests may be studied with profit. After deter- 
mining the subjects on the basis of all available in- 
formation and data, a considerable number of first-year 
offerings (if a variety of interests are to be appealed 
to) will be experimental so far as demand is con- 
cerned. This will not occur in so great a degree in future 

Teachers. The question of available teachers of high 
ability is a most important factor in making plans for 
evening sdhool instruction. .Upon the availability of an 
expert teacher may hinge the question of whether a 
desired course should be offered. An unsatisfactory 
teacher will destroy a class in a few nights. Attendance 
being voluntary, the pupils do not come unless they 


know they are getting instruction of measurable value to 

At this point it is necessary to point out only some of 
the outstanding qualities needed in teachers. They must 
be mature. They must command respect from adults for 
their mastery of the subject-matter they teach ; some- 
times due to their position in occupational life. They must 
be able to teach others in addition to being masters of 
their respective subjects. Their attitude must be a sym- 
pathetic one. Their approach to the pupils must be at a 
level with the pupils' comprehension, and given in a 
spirit of equality. 

Former teachers often make good evening school 
teachers. Outsiders who have had training in pedagogy 
or are willing to undertake a study of it may make excel- 
lent teachers in practical subjects. Day-school academic 
teachers (grade and high school) may fit into evening 
school work if they can adapt themselves to adults and 
have the physical strength to do the added work. Cer- 
tainly only the best available teacher in any subject 
should be employed for evening school work with adults. 
Evening school administrators should be the sole judges 
of the fitness of teachers for these classes, should be the 
ones to employ the teachers, and should also assume 
responsibility for them. Selecting teachers is a most im- 
portant part of preliminary planning. 

Salaries. If a school is to secure the best available 
teachers, it must expect to pay for their services accord- 
ingly. There should be a recognized salary schedule based 
upon successful evening school teaching experience as the 
major consideration. Those teaching their first year in 
evening schools should be on a probationary salary. If 


they prove to be successful teachers, they should be 
advanced to the established schedule. Provision should 
be made for paying more than the scheduled salary if it 
becomes necessary in order to secure the services of a 
recognized specialist. 

In arriving at a basic schedule it should be kept in 
mind that the teacher does more than teach a given 
number of hours each evening. Usually the entire even- 
ins "spoiled" so far as any other activities are con- 
. What is of greater importance is the fact that an 
effective teacher must spend considerable time on his 
work outside of class hours, just as day-school teachers 
d* A good course of study needs constant planning and 
revision. To teach effectively, an instructor must have a 
lesson-plan for each evening. Instruction which produces 
results requires this preparation. It should be expected of 
teachers and be paid for accordingly when the schedule 
of salaries is determined. Anything less than the best in 
evening instruction is false economy. 

Courses of study. The question of organized courses 
of study is a phase of evening school administration 
which is very easily neglected or entirely ignored. It has 
been noted already that an effective course of study is 
one which is constantly under revision in the light of 
additional information and experiences in teaching. It 
should therefore be in some written form. 

Even when classes are organized for the first time, a 
brief outline of work for each evening should be pre- 
pared. This will give assurance that the teacher has 
thought through the problem to some extent. It is surely 
the duty of the administrator to make a brief general 
outline of what a course should contain with suggestions 


for teaching. It is equally the duty of the employed 
teacher (as a specialist in his subject) to plan the details 
and organize them into a unified whole. 

Housing the classes. The question of housing classes 
may be a considerable problem in making preliminary 
plans for evening schools. The matter of geographical 
locations is an important one if the city is even of medium 
size. The location selected for a particular class should 
be as centralized as possible for the group it serves. When 
several school centers are established, a sufficient number 
of classes must be held in each to warrant the additional 
expenses incurred for light, heat anct janitor service. 
Where the community is small enough to house all classes 
in one building, this overhead is reduced materially. 

The use of other than school buildings for classes, be- 
cause of location or equipment, may be desirable. A 
garage for automobile repair instruction, a manufacturing 
plant for a trade course and a public library assembly 
hall for public speaking are instances. Where the schools 
cannot furnish the type of space and necessary equipment 
for instruction, there is no serious objection to holding 
the classes in other places. 

Frequently trade courses can be given in plants near 
which many of the tradesmen have their homes. In a 
similar manner an Americanization class can sometimes 
be located in a foreign section of a city. When the classes 
are scattered about a city in this way the problems of 
administration and supervision are increased, and pro- 
vision must be made to meet this condition. The question 
of providing specific subjects is likewise complicated by 
the necessity for choosing locations from among several 
possible ones. 


If an evening school is to offer a considerable number 
and variety of classes, the question of laboratory and 
shop space usually becomes an important one. A survey 
of the offerings in a cosmopolitan evening school fre- 
quently shows a greater number of classes needing such 
space than those which can utilize academic class-rooms. 
Most of the commercial classes, all trade and home-mak- 
ing classes, science, art, hand-craft and physical educa- 
tion classes need special types of rooms, and frequently 
special equipment. If an academic high school building 
is used, this need creates a real problem. Cosmopolitan 
and technical high schools and trade-schools generally 
are provided with better rooms for the purposes above 

It is quite possible to use shops and laboratories for 
other work than that for which they are planned. A 
laboratory with large tables in it can be utilized for 
sewing classes and some art classes quite readily. A few 
commercial classes can do their work in academic rooms 
or study halls with desks. Shops with benches can at 
times be used for instruction in other trades than the 
ones for which they are primarily equipped. Usually 
what is needed in such cases as these is that any neces- 
sary special equipment be provided, and that there be 
adequate space for careful storage of the same. Large 
table-tops of boards cleated together have been made 
and placed on light trestles to provide table space for 
classes when no other facilities were available. These 
makeshift tables have been placed in academic class- 
rooms and taken away at the close of the evening's work, 
or, if possible, placed against a wall of the room. A little 
ingenuity will often make laboratory and shop space 


available where it does not exist as part of the day-school 

Adequate lighting facilities are of prime importance, 
and require special attention, although most modern 
schools are fairly well equipped in this respect. There 
should be bulbs strong enough for the needs of the classes 
using the rooms. At times, in practical subjects requiring 
accurate hand- work, it is necessary to provide additional 
lights on cords, which can be moved from place to place 
as needed. 

Ventilation is extremely important in evening schools. 
Teachers need to be carefully instructed in this respect. 
The ventilating system should be in operation, and fre- 
quently it is also necessary to open doors and windows. 
There is a very recognizable reason for this in some 
classes. It must be remembered that rooms are occupied 
by adults in the evening, and by children or youths dur- 
ing the day. In some evening classes particularly there 
may be occupational odors brought in with clothing, 
body odors at times, odors of tobacco and breath odors. 
A teacher in a room does not always recognize these con- 
ditions during the interested conduct of a lesson, but one 
coming into such a room does recognize them instantly. 

One fact in regard to housing classes which has been 
brought to the writer's attention forcibly a number of 
times is the desirability of locating Americanization 
classes in adjoining rooms in any building. A unity of 
interest, feelings and spirit is common to all pupils in 
these classes. Frequently they are acquainted, and come 
with or bring other members. Such pupils have a longing 
to be among and near their own kind during the evening 
instruction periods. It has not been observed that they 


lose anything because of this grouping in regard to ink- 
ing with others before school, at intermissions and at the 
close of school. 

Schedules. Another phase of the planning of an eve- 
ning school is the matter of schedules. The number of 
evenings a school is to operate in any given building 
must first be determined. Rooms, equipment, types of 
classes and overhead costs of light may influence the 
decision. Usually these schools operate two, three or four 
evenings during the first four days of the week. 

Days of the week. If a school is to operate two eve- 
nings per week, Tuesday and Thursday are generally 
looked upon as being the most desirable days. This ar- 
rangement places a day between the meetings and at 
the same time does not make too long a break between 
them. For some groups of people Monday is not as good 
a night as one later in the week. If the school is to operate 
four evenings, any given two-evening class would best 
meet on Tuesday and Thursday or Monday and Wednes- 
day. It has not been found to be a good policy for pupils 
to enroll for four evenings of work per week. Such pupils, 
unless very strong, determined and ambitious, lose inter- 
est in their work before completion. It may be well in 
certain instances to make exceptions to rulings of this 

Hours. Evening school classes usually operate two 
hours, though sometimes one, one and one-half or three 
hours. These hours are frequently between half-past 
seven and half -past nine, and at times from seven to ten 
o'clock. Classes which operate more than two hours are 
frequently trade classes. When a class operates for only 
one hour, as some commercial, grade school and other 


classes may, it is always desirable that other classes for 
the same type of pupils 'be provided for a second hour's 
work. Pupils in most cases do not feel that it is worth 
while to break up an evening and go to school for only 
one hour. The nature of the subject will be a very im- 
portant factor in determining the length of time that 
should be given to it each evening. 

Length of courses. Length of courses will be dis- 
cussed in detail in a later chapter. The character of the 
subject-matter of any course will again be a factor influ- 
encing a decision on this point. Requirements established 
for State or State and federal aid may also influence a 
decision. These requirements may provide either a max- 
imum or a minimum number of hours. 

Generally speaking,, short courses are better than long 
ones. Long courses may be broken up or divided into a 
number of short units. The psychological effect on the 
pupils of recognizing that a definite goal is not too far 
distant, and the satisfaction which comes from complet- 
ing recognized courses or bodies of subject-matter are 
most desirable. That interest and effort are maintained 
better in short-unit courses is evidenced by the better 
attendance records which such classes ordinarily show. 
From five to nine weeks has been found to be the most 
desirable length of time for classes. The six-weeks class 
might be considered as approaching the ideal in a great 
many instances. 

Time of the year. The late fall and early winter are 
the best seasons for evening school, though this period 
might vary somewhat with the relative latitude of a par- 
ticular community. In the far north it is well to begin 
evening school as early as possible in the fall. Late Sep- 


tember or early October is not too early, as the coldest 
and most severe part of winter usually comes in January 
and February. 

The writer has found that it is desirable to provide 
for as much instruction as possible before the break 
occasioned by the Christmas holidays. Ten or twelve 
weeks at least should be assured before this time. Attend- 
ance records of classes, especially long ones operating 
sixteen and eighteen weeks and up to thirty-six weeks, 
are conclusive evidence of this. 

Holidays. In planning a schedule, definite provision 
is necessary in regard to incidental holidays falling on 
school evenings, as well as those at Christmas. These 
should be definitely omitted, or made up by changing 
the weekly program or by having extra lessons at the 
close. Changing the weekly program has been found to 
be a very questionable procedure because pupils make 
provision, long in advance, for utilizing those evenings 
on which they do not attend school. Abnormal absences 
clearly indicate the undesirability of this procedure when 
it is followed. 

In some years these incidental holidays or other special 
days with unusual attractions outside fall on school 
nights rather frequently. Generally it is not a good plan 
to close school for any but the really important ones. 
Evening school is a serious activity, costing money, time 
and effort. Most pupils realize this fact. Interruptions 
of the work should be very infrequent. 

Advertising. Adequate advertising must be planned 
for and used well in advance of the actual opening of 
evening schools. Before the advertising can be under- 
taken, all other plans must be completed. This indicates 


the necessity for providing considerable time, previous 
to evening school opening, for all of the preliminary 
activities. Advertising as an important factor in evening 
school administration will be treated in the following 

Textbooks. The question of textbooks is one which 
may be puzzling in some instances. Elementary classes 
and academic high school classes which have recognized 
requirements may and frequently will use the same texts 
as day classes. Other academic classes, arts and crafts 
classes and special and unusual vocational classes may 
be such that no text is applicable. In these instances the 
teacher must provide the subject-matter for the pupils. 
Common and basic subjects in vocational education have 
in some instances very good text and reference books. 
Numerous texts have been published for Americanization 


1. If sufficient funds are available, what is the surest method 
of finding out if the adults of a community wish evening 
school education, and if they do, in what fields they 
wish it? 

2. What are some of the important factors requiring atten- 
tion in planning the establishment of an evening school? 

3. What recommendations might specific groups of individ- 
uals make concerning evening school offerings? Illus- 
trate with three examples. 

4. What two very important negative factors may operate 
if day-school teachers are employed in an evening school? 

5. Enumerate problems the evening school teacher faces 
which do not occur in day-school teaching. 

6. What effects may the size of a city have on the geo- 


graphical locations of classes? On the complexity of 
administration? Give an instance to illustrate your last 

7. In what ways may school equipment be a special problem 
to the evening school administrator? Illustrate. 

8. Explain how five major considerations may enter into 
the planning of a schedule of classes for a school. 


Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). Out of 

Lynn, J. V., and Others, Organization and Management of 
Evening Classes, Series 2, State Board of Vocational 
Education (Des Moines, Iowa, 1927). 

Lynn, J. V., series of articles on various phases of evening 
school organization and instruction, Industrial Educa- 
tion Magazine (Peoria, Illinois, beginning October, 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, Kansas State Teachers College 
(Pittsburg, Kansas). 

fayne, Arthur F., Organization of Evening Vocational Classes, 
General Extension Division, University of Minnesota 
(Minneapolis, Minnesota). 

Trade and Industrial Education (Organization and Adminis- 
tration) , Bulletin No. 17, Federal Board for Vocational 
Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Trade Extension Courses in Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 
14, Board for Vocational Education (Springfield, 
Illinois) . 



Nature of Evening School Advertising 

Advertising is usually thought of as being some form 
of public notice or announcement, in printed form. This 
type of evening school advertising is essential, but it is 
not the only kind which can be employed. Other forms 
should also be used, such as "word-of -mouth" advertis- 
ing, especially when evening schools are being organized 
for the first time in a community. These other forms 
might be thought of as publicity. They might likewise 
be thought of as propaganda, but here the end is not 
questionable, for the evening school has the highest 
motives. The idea behind these types of advertising is 
largely education of the public as to the nature and 
worth of evening adult education. 

Special Importance of First-Year Advertising 

When evening schools are being established in a com- 
munity for the first time, the advertising should include 
more than the printed forms. Announcements of courses, 
schools, schedules and the like should be of such a va- 
riety that every citizen will be reached. Not only should 
every one in a community be informed, but np.any will 
have to be educated regarding the purposes, costs, teach- 



ers and values of this form of adult education. Many will 
immediately recognize the benefits to be derived. Others 
will have to have them carefully and thoroughly ex- 
plained to them. Sometimes special appeals to particular 
groups are necessary. 

To many who have not previously come in contact 
with evening schools, adult education in this form is 
quite revolutionary. Care, tact and patience are needed 
in presenting it. If this part of the work is adequately 
done, the initial success in attracting the desired pupils 
is almost assured. A high standard of quality in any form 
of advertising should be established the first year. 

Continued Advertising Necessary 

The first year's advertising is of necessity more exten- 
sive than any required in future years after schools are 
established. However, announcements of new courses, 
schedules of classes and various items of interest need to 
be repeated each year. News stories of the progress of 
classes and attendance upon them and results accom- 
plished are of general interest. They help to indicate that 
evening schools are active institutions. Such news helps 
to make people desire the benefits of the schools, and 
helps to establish an esprit de corps in classes and in the 
student body generally. 

It should be kept in mind always that satisfied pupil 
are one of the best advertising assets an evening school 
can possess. They are its satisfied customers. They tell 
others of its advantages, bring others to the school, and 
are its loyal boosters. This fact should be kept in mind 
by both teachers and administrators in all their contacts 


with pupils. After a successful first year's work this 
factor in school advertising continues to operate without 
effort on the part of administrators if the school is kept 
up to a high standard. The worth of efforts made in this 
direction should be apparent. 

The value of high-grade advertising has been touched 
on as to its value in the first establishment of evening 
instruction. It is essential that a high standard be main- 
tained always, and if possible be improved. In printed 
matter particularly it is a well-recognized fact that per- 
sons hesitate to throw aside with scant attention a fine 
piece of advertising on excellent paper. Quality, in adver- 
tising as well as in all other evening school efforts, is a 
condition to be striven for always. Real evening school 
development can scarcely be accomplished without qual- 
ity in all things. 

Quality and quantity of evening school advertising 
are of course determined by budget allowances. Such 
funds as are spent for this purpose, however, could hardly 
be used for any better purpose. 

Forms of Advertising 

Posters. Posters are a common form of evening 
school announcement. Figure 1 is an example of such a 
poster. It is fourteen by twenty-two inches in size, 
printed in black on white Bristol board. Posters of this 
type are used chiefly for two purposes. They are pinned 
on or near bulletin boards in industrial plants and other 
establishments, where they make large and attractive 
announcements. They are also used in retail stores and 
store windows and other public places. Among the latter 



Tues.andthur*Evening%7:30 to 9:30 
Enrollment andFirst Classes, Tues. Oct 5,1926 











Home Making 




BLOOMERS ....... 


















Citizenship and Beginning English 









rinuc SPEAKING ii * 







NO TUITION. An nrollmnt fee of 11,00 If chtrgol to thow 

n!nKfKph. Mk |,Ovt.a. Far thow MWllinff later the fee U &M. Thii 

ri*,i.U ItnviuKntM'iiifiinMi hnwrcU of iW percent. 

Kiiratlwontx for <'buiMW (artinj{ Istar fhn Oct. 5, <houW slw bt made on Oct. 5, 














irolltng on flu first vn 
fe it returned to nil t. 

Announcement of the St. Cloud (Minnesota) Public Evening School 


might be mentioned specifically court-houses, city halls, 
post-offices, banks, hotels, libraries, theaters and railroad 

Another type of poster which has proved both inter- 
esting and satisfactory is that made in day-school art 
classes. The theme or motif for such posters is specific, 
and a variety of ideas is possible of execution. Such 
posters serve a triple purpose. They center day pupils' 
attention and interest in adult evening education, they 
cause parents to be interested in their children's efforts 
and the thought behind the work and they are very 
effective in emphasizing both general and particular 
phases of evening school work. Every opportunity should 
be taken to use art class products. 

Circulars. Circulars are a very common type of eve- 
ning school advertising. They may be small leaflets, fold- 
ers, or single printed sheets. In all instances they should 
be of such a size that they may be folded and placed in 
common-sized envelopes if desired. Figure 2 shows how 
attractive the front page of a leaflet six by nine inches 
can be made. An attractive and suggestive half-tone cut 
on the front page of a leaflet has been found to create 
interest. The use of illustrations is by no means essential, 
however, and in many communities they are not used on 
announcements of this kind. 

The text matter of circular announcements usually 
contains some or all of the following information: calen- 
dar for the year, history of the school, eligibility for 
entrance, enrolment and material fees, school regula- 
tions, information about registration for classes and 
enumeration and brief descriptions of courses. The extent 
of the material used in the last item is governed by the 


Public Evening School 

Examples of work of classes in the 1925-1926 Evening School, 

Enrollment and First Classes Tuesday, Oct. 5, 1926, 
7:30 P. M. Technical Hi&h School 

A Sample Front Page for an Advertising Leaflet 


"History of tfce Evening School. 

In 1910 evening classes In mechanical drawing were Conducted 
In 1916 classes in citizenship and English for foreigners were added 
In the year 1919 the course in monumental lettering and design was first offered The 
following year, 1920, numerous courses jn trade, home making; commercial and academic sub-' 
jects aad physical training were added. The initial enrollment was over 500. la the years 
following 1920 the enrollment has, continued in the neighborhood of 500. In 1024-23 there was 
a total enrollment of 552 individuals. These figures can be interpreted only as indicating that 
of the total likely Evening School students in St Cloud, a large number have taken oppor- 
tunity of the work offered in several different years. We knoV of many ""who have attended 
three, four and five years. Ages have varied from IS to &5 years. 

Calendar 1925-1926 

^October 8 and 9 Enrollment 
October 13> Classes begin 
November 26 Thanksgiving holiday 
Dec. 18 to Jan. 4 Christmas holidays 
February 1 1 Last night of school 

Who may Enroll? 

Anyone over 16 years who is not attending day school. 
Anyone under 16 years who has left school on a permit 

What is the Cost? 

Tuition is free. An enrollment fee of $1.00 is charged if enrollment ts made' oft the eve"* 
nings of Oct. 8 or 9. Late enrollment fee is $2.00. The enrollment fee is returned to all 
who have an attendance record of 90%. Materials used in trade, commercial and home making 
courses are paid for by the students. 

Important School Regulations. 

No classes are formed for less than 10 students. 

Any change of enrollment must be made at the principal's office. Students are urged to 
give careful thought in the selecting of the course to pursue. Persons absent for three suc- 
cessive meetings of the class are automatically dropped from the attendance records. Rein- 
statement must be made in the principal's office before admittance to the class is again per- 

It is the policy of the school to form additional classes other than those here listed when 
a sufficient number of people desire it and a competent teacher can be found. 

Students desiring enrollment in classes which begin sometime after the school opens 
In October should enroll on the two enrollment evenings provided. Enrollments for 
later classes will be numbered consecutively and preference given to those who enroll 
on the two evenings provided for that purpose. 

Brief Outline of Courses 


Monumental Lettering and Design Oct 13 to Feb 11, (16 weeks*. 
Mr. Dan Haslam, 7:30 to 930 

BEGINNING Practical lettering, illustrating proper form, proportion and correct spacing 
ADVANCED Roman and other lettering applied to memorial work, and free-hand draw- 
ing covering full-size details of tracings and carvings as required in .shopwork. This is the 
only coarse of its kind given in the United States. 

Show Card Writing Oct. 13 to Dec. IT, (10 weeks). 
Mr. Russell $oe, 7:30 to 9:30 

.This work includes- the study and practice of alphabets, spacing, margins, layouts, colon, 
shading and proportion. 

Machine Shop for Apprentices and Auto Mechanics Oct. 18 to Feb. 11, (Id weeks). 
Mr. M. C. Allen, 7:30- to 9:30. 
Instruction centers chiefly on the lathe, sharper, drill press and the mtatcMnisTahand tools. 


Another Evening School Announcement 


Automobile Care WomenGet 13 to Nov. 10, (6 weeks). 

Mr. Robert Miller, 7:30 to 9:30. (class limited to 25). 

This course covers the various adjustments and repairs wmCQ 3 woman anOUla WXOW DOW 
to make on a car. 
Automobile Care and RepairMen Nov. 24 to FeT>. 11, ( 

master are the basis of the work, 
Blueprint Reading for Builders Oct. 13 to Deo. 17 t (10 wee.tsX 

This class wm be divided into' sections for the various building trade$ as building 
cutting, carpentry, plumbing brick-laying, etc. Cost estimating may ajs,o be atudjefl, 

Business Men's Course Oct. 13 to Dec. 17, (10 weeks). 

^SS^STlSS^nSSubS^U- (Mils, notes, drift* cheofe deposits, Mft <**. 
tract*, leins, mortgages, insurance, bank deposits, bills of lading, investments, etc, 
Bookkeeping Oct. 13 to Feb. 11, (1C weeks). 

Mr. H E. Biddinger, College of Commerce, 7:30 to 9:30. . 

The object of this course is to learn the principles of bookkeeping .ana accounting oy re- 
cording business transactions. 
Typewriting -Oct. 13 to Dec. 17, (10 weeks). 

Mis* Georgia Scott, 7:30 to 9:30. 

Two divisions are organized, one for beginners and one for those who wish to acquire speed, 
Commarclal ArlthmetlcOct. 13 to Feb. 11, (16 we*ks). 

Mr. Frank Hady r 7:30 to 8:30. . 

The common mathematical calculations required in everyday business are studied. 


Elementary Sewing (2 courses) -Oct. 13 to Dc. 8 and Dec. 8 to Feb. 11, (8 weeks each). 
Miss Bessie Wheeler, 7:30 to 9'30. ^ u 5 t 

These are beginners courses. One undergarment is required on which to base instruction. 
There is opportunity for choice in the remaining articles. Students completing the first eight 
weeks course may take more advanced work immediately following in the second course in 
advanced sewing. 
Advanced Sewing (2 courses) Oct. IS to Dec. 3 and Dec. 8 to Feb. 11, (8 weeks each) 

Mrs. L. B. Luther, 7:30 to fc30. t ..,*, , v ^ u 

This course of instruction leads up to tailoring. Certain -definite garments will be made by 
each member of the group so that everyone will secure all of the instruction given. Textiles 
are studied. 
Plain Cookingr-Oct. 18 to Nov. 19, (6 weeks). 

Miss May Kohn, 7:30 to 9:30. . 

The selection and purchase of foods; and the preparation and cooking of the plain substan- 
tial dishes with variations is the basis of this course. 
Meal Preparation Nov. 24 to Dec. 17, (4 weeks). 

Miss May Kohn. 7:30 to 9:30 . . 

The planning, preparing and serving of breakfasts* dJniww and gnppett is included in this 
Unusual Cooking Jan. 6 to Feb. 11, (6 weeks). 

Miss May Kohn. 7:30 to 9:30. 

Pastry, fancy cakes, decorative icings, planked stakes and fiih. salads, deserts, etc., ar 
some phases of the work, 
Children's Garments Oct. 18 to Dec. 17, (10 weeks). 

Mrs. L. B. Luther, 3:00 to 5:00 (afternoon). ' 

This is a practical course in sewing designed to make that part of mothers* sewing easier. 
Garments for children one to twelve years will be Special attention will be given to 
design and making over. i 

NOTE: A play room for children will be conducted by high school girls for the bene- 
fit of mothers who wish to Join this class. Children who can walk, up to six years, may 
tie brought. This will also facilitate the fitting of garment*. 

FIQUEB 3 (Continued) 
Another Evening School Announcement 


amount of available space. Subjects should be grouped 
under appropriate classifications. The name of the sub- 
ject or class, its duration, date of opening, teacher, eve- 
nings of meeting, hours of meeting and location are all 
desirable factors in this part of the announcement. If it 
is possible to include them, brief descriptions of the 
courses of study (such as are found in college bulletins) 
are of great value. Courses offered for the first time 
should always have this description. All of these items 
lend concreteness to the advertising. Figure 3 is an illus- 
tration of two inside pages of a leaflet showing a schedule 
of classes and brief descriptions of courses. Such leaflets 
commonly vary in size from four to twelve pages and 
are usually printed in eight or nine point type. 

Through wide distribution of this or other forms of 
announcement the work of class registration is much 
facilitated. Pupils know from the descriptions given what 
the subject-matter of any course is. Most of them can 
guide themselves in the selection of subjects. This elim- 
inates much of the additional work of educational and 
some vocational guidance which frequently is essential 
in the registration of evening pupils. 

Another form of circular announcement of evening 
schools is the folder. A very interesting one (Figure 4) 
is six inches high and ten and one-half inches wide, 
folded twice. This provides six pages, single column. It 
fits into a common sized envelope. 

Still another announcement is a single sheet, four 
inches wide by nine inches high, printed on one side, the 
content of which is shown herewith. On this form no 
enumeration of the subjects offered is made. Neither are 
there any descriptions of the courses. 



55 ?* 

Sill i 
tlfi i 

<j p a. 





g S 








Board of Education 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 



Evening Schools will open Monday evening, October 10, 
1921, in charge of Dr. C. M. Jordan. 

First term October 10 to December 16, 1921. 

Second term January 9 to March 17, 1922. 

Registration: North and South High Schools and the Voca- 
tional School will be open for registration Thursday, Friday 
and Saturday, October 6, 7 and 8, from 6:30 to 9:00 P. M. 

The elementary schools will be open for registration Mon- 
day, October 10, at 6:30 P. M. 

Day-school pupils will not be admitted to the evening 
schools. All evening schools will be open to both men and 

Sessions will be two hours in length, from 7:30 to 9:30 P. 
M., on the evenings listed. 

Elementary schools: Mondays and Tuesdays. 

High Schools : Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays. 

Vocational School: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and 

Tuition, payable at time of registration, will be charged as 

Elementary: $1.00 a year for English and Citizenship; $1.00 
a term for Industrial subjects. 

High School and Vocational: $3.00 a term for laboratory 
subjects, $1.50 a term for other subjects. 



North High School, Fremont & 17th avs. N.; Courses of- 
fered: Regular high school work; principal, W. W. Hobbs. 

South High School, Cedar av. & E. 24th St.; Courses offered: 
Regular high school work; principal, Robert Cowling. 

Vocation School, 4th av. S. & llth St.; Courses offered: 
Business and industrial courses; principal, Agnes Harris. 

Bremer, Emerson & Lowry avs. N.; Courses offered: English 
for foreigners, citizenship; principal, G. M. Caviness. 

Franklin School, 15th av. N, & 4th St.; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship; principal, E. H. Schimmele. 

Harrison School, James & 4th avs. N.; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship; principal, Fred D. Lewis. 

Jackson School, 15th av. S. & 4th St.; Courses offered: Eng- 
lish for foreigners, citizenship ; principal, Anna Wright. 

Schiller School, 26th av. N. E. & Grand; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship; principal, Mary L. Martin. 

Sheridan School, University av. N. E. & Broadway ; Courses 
offered: English for foreigners, citizenship; principal, E. A. 

Simmons School, Minnehaha av. & E. 38th; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship ; principal, Gilbert J. Holzer. 

Sumner School, Aldrich & 6th avs. N.; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship; principal, Mary B. Rood. 

Washington School, 8th av. S. & 6th St.; Courses offered: 
English for foreigners, citizenship ; principal, Olga L. Lommen. 

The eight and one-half by eleven inch letter-size sheet 
is another convenient form frequently used in evening 
school advertising. If the offerings are fairly numerous 
they may be listed only. The usual data and information 
necessary for rapid and successful registration should be 
on this sheet if no additional advertising accompanies it. 
See the three announcements on pages 53-54, 55-57 and 







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A nal fee of 
October 3d. An addi 
enrolment, or such pa 
The fees will be retur 




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Printed announcements of related courses are a form 
of advertising of value to particularly interested groups. 
See Figure 5. Samples of these indicate that both folders 
and leaflets are used. Some set forth all of the offerings 
of a specific school or center. Some list all of the offer- 
ings in departments, as commercial or home-making, for 
all schools in a city. Some enumerate all courses center- 
ing around one particular occupation, as that of ma- 

Uses of circular announcements. Announcements of 
this general type may be used in several ways. Some 
which have been tried and found desirable are: distrib- 
uting them through the pupils to all homes represented 
in the schools of the city; combining them with letters 
sent to all young men and young women from the com- 
pulsory attendance age to twenty-one years who are not 
attending school; sending them with appropriate letters 
to business firms, professional offices, manufacturing 
establishments and all aliens who have not mastered the 
English language. Lists of young people from the com- 
pulsory school age to twenty-one years who are not in 
school, and of those aliens who do not speak English can 
be procured from the school census if it is taken with 
this factor in mind. Lists of aliens can also be procured 
from the district headquarters of the United States 
Bureau of Naturalization. 

Letters. Letters to interested groups are another 
form of evening school advertising. They may be sent 
alone or with other printed matter. They may be sent 
to the officials of organizations such as lodges, service 
clubs, commercial organizations, labor groups, church 
societies, parent-teacher associations and women's fed- 


erated clubs. Letters may also be sent to individuals and 
firms either with or without other printed matter, as was 
described in the previous paragraph. The four following 
mimeographed form letters are self-explanatory samples. 


St. Cloud, Minnesota. 

Dear Mr. 

You probably know that Evening Schools 
are being established all over the country 
to help those who wish to become citizens of 
the United States. I know that some day you 
will wish to become a full citizen. Our 
evening class in Citizenship will help you 
to prepare yourself for the examination, which 
every one not born here must pass to become 
a citizen. 

This year we are starting the evening 
school early so as not to run into the cold 
weather. You may come to the first class on 
Tuesday evening, October 16, at 7:30 at the 
Technical High School. This course will not 
cost you anything. 

If there are other members of your fami- 
ly, or some of your friends, who could profit 
Toy being in this class, bring them along with 
you. There will also be an English-speaking 
class for those who wish to learn the English, 
language better. 

These classes are organized especially 
for people who want to become citizens and 
who want to learn the English language. I 
hope I may see you on October 16 at 7:30. 

Very truly yours, 


The Evening School is offering for the 
fifth year the course of special interest to 
the granite industry. The course in Monu- 


mental Lettering and Design will again "be 
under the instruction of Mr. Dan Haslam, de- 
signer for the Melrose Granite Company* In 
offering this course we are following sugges- 
tions recently made to us Toy granite producers 
that this is the one course which the Evening 
School could give successfully to those en- 
gaged in the granite industry. 

We wish that you would call this to the 
attention of your employes. We are sure that 
you would not only "be doing them a service 
but yourself as well. 

Instruction is given to suit individual 
needs to just as great an extent as that is 
possible in a class. 

Registration will "be held Thursday and 
Friday evenings, October 11 and 12, from 7:30 
to 9:00 at the Technical High. Classes will 
be held each Tuesday and Thursday evening at 
7:30 thereafter. 

Very truly yours, 

My dear Young Friend: 

There were 646 citizens of our community 
enrolled in the Evening School last year. Of 
these 285 were men and 361 were women. There 
were 218 enrolled (one third) who were under 
twenty-one years of age. We are particularly 
interested in this group. To you I would 
address these questions: 

Are you preparing for or engaged in a 
trade or commercial occupation? 

Are you a home-maker or prospective home- 

Has your physical development been all 
that you desire? 

Did you advance as far in the grades or 
high school as you now wish you had? 

Are you interested in subjects which will 
broaden your general culture? 


Will you not analyze yourself and your 
work and then look through the enclosed folder 
and see if there is not some subject offered 
which will foe of interest and value to you? 
The Evening School is planned and operated for 
adults only. In St. Cloud it has become the 
school of all of the people. All ages, polit- 
ical affiliations, nationalities and creeds 
work and mingle together to improve them- 
selves, and in so doing also improve the com- 

Enrolment and first class-work at 7:30 
Tuesday evening, October 5, at the Technical 
High School. 

Very truly yours, 


Your Public Schools are trying to serve 
you as an employer, and also your employes. 
Courses are to be offered in the Evening 
School which, it is hoped, will be of value to 
you through increasing the efficiency of your 
employes, or possibly yourself. Will you not 
cooperate with us to the extent of calling to 
the attention of those in your employ, the 
courses outlined on the enclosed leaflet? 

Courses which should be of special in- 
terest are: 

1. Problems of Retail Salesmanship, by Pro- 
fessor R. S. Vaile, School of Commerce, 
University of Minnesota. 
This is a short intensive course of three 
weeks (6 lessons). Such questions as 
approach to a prospective customer, store 
service, displays, etc., will be taken 
up. The work will be combined lecture, 
class discussion and demonstration. Ow- 
ing to the high cost of securing the 
services of Professor Vaile, it is neces- 
sary to make a small tuition charge of $2 
for this course. Also, the course must 


have an enrolment of twenty members In 
order to be given. 

2. Business Man*s Course, by Attorney Warren 

This centers very largely around commer- 
cial law. 

3 - Typewriting, by Miss Georgia Scott, of the 
Technical High Commercial Department. 
There will be opportunity for beginners 
and for those who wish to increase their 

4. Boolckeeping, by Mr. H. E. Biddinger, Prin- 

cipal of the College of Commerce, St. 


Individual needs will be given as much 

attention as possible. 

5. Commercial Arithmetic or Commercial Eng- 

lish, by Mr. Frank Hady of the High 
School Commercial Department. 
The course given will be the regular high 
school course with the usual one-half 
high school credit. 

6. Penmanship and Spelling, by Miss Leila 

Robinson of the State Teachers College. 

Individual instruction will be given as 

far as possible. 

Registration will be held at the Techni- 
cal High School on Thursday and Friday eve- 
nings, October 9 and 10, from 7:30 to 9:00. 
Classes will be held each Tuesday and Thursday 
evenings at 7:30 beginning October 14, except 
in Problems of Retail Salesmanship. 

Very truly yours, 

Day-school pupils' themes* The advantages derived 
from evening school education can be worded into titles 
for class themes or essays particularly adapted to the 
ages of junior and senior high school pupils. This method 
of centering attention on the evening schools is especially 


advantageous when the work is first -being inaugurated. 
It centers the interest and attention of day school pupils 
on adult education, which in itself is desirable. This 
interest is frequently carried home by the pupils. Writing 
themes or essays of this type should be made competitive 
and winners should be selected. Winning essays may be 
printed in the local newspapers, contributing additional 
interest and indirect advertising. 

News stories. News stories in the daily press, before 
the opening of evening schools, at the opening, during 
the term or terms (to note progress) and at the close to 
summarize results are effective advertising. School au- 
thorities should initiate this form of publicity. The press 
is usually glad to get news items of this kind. Continued 
publicity of this type tends to emphasize in the minds 
of the public the fact that the evening schools are a vital, 
integral and very live factor in the community life. The 
following quotation is from a newspaper story written 
immediately after the opening of a term of evening 

"The night school courses at Technical attended 
by over 500 citizens are serving as a community institution 
with more interest displayed and a greater enrolment than 
ever before. That the conscientious efforts of the faculty and 
the board, assisted by local experts who are serving as instruc- 
tors, is appreciated by the public is evidenced by the fact that 
the number of students bids fair to increase rather than grow 
less as the season advances. 

"The following report of the first week's work is made 
by the principal. 

" 'That the people of St. Cloud have realized the value of 
practical education is evident by the fact that a large pro- 
portion of those enrolled in the evening classes are enrolled 


in the so-called practical subjects. With an attendance of 
over 500 the first night the number in the various clashes at 
the end of one week still was considerably over 500. Thi^ is 
gratifying, as those acquainted with evening school work 
look for a considerable loss, as much as 20 per cent, during the 
first week. The large number enrolled made it necessary to 
run the school four nights per week instead of two as orig- 
inally planned. 

" 'The subject of monumental lettering and drafting is prov- 
ing popular again this year, and provision is now made to 
care for a few more. The mechanical and architectural draw- 
ing class is filled. Four sections of beginning typewriting are 
now organized and these, together with the shorthand, book- 
keeping, commercial law and retail salesmanship classes, are 
filled, with the exception of the latter two classes. More are 
enrolled in the show-card writing than were looked for, but 
a few more can be cared for. The two cooking and two sewing 
classes and the course in millinery have waiting-lists for en- 
trance, except the afternoon course in children's and plain 
sewing. A few more can be cared for in the latter class. 

" 'That St. Cloud is rapidly becoming a manufacturing cen- 
ter is evidenced by the fact that between 50 and 60 young men 
have applied for admission to the machine-shop classes. All 
but a few are engaged in manufacturing plants. A waiting- 
list is being prepared for these classes also, as all could n'ot 
be accommodated. About 50 are enrolled in the two classes in 
machine-shop mathematics and blue-print reading. More can 
be accommodated in this subject. 

" 'Two sections are necessary for the beginning English 
class for adults, and one for the Americanization class. A 
gratifying feature of the beginning English work is the large 
enrolment of women. According to records, there should be 
a few more enrolled in the Americanization class. The main 
object of this class is to prepare candidates for citizenship 
examinations. This, however, is not the sole aim, as civic sub- 
jects relating to community, state and nation are being dis- 
cussed and studied. 


" 'Two sections of gymnasium for young men, two for 
women and two sections of swimming for women have had to 
be formed to care for those desiring the benefits of physical 
education. The class in fine and applied art has also proved 
popular and has a waiting-list. 

" *A record system of nightly attendance has been adopted. 
From this it will be possible to determine any who are fre- 
quently absent. Their places will be filled by those on waiting- 
lists who desire entrance/" 

Newspaper advertisements. This form of advertising 
is used in some places. That it is quite as effective as 


EVENING 7:30 to 9:30 

Enrolment and First Classes, Tuesday, Oct. 5, 1926 
Technical High School 


Class Begins Length Wks. 

Monumental Lettering and Design Oct. 5 12 

Monumental EstimatingJan. 11 6 

Machine-Shop (elementary) Oct. 5 9 

Machine-Shop (advanced) Dec. 7 9 

Show-Card Writing Oct. 5 11 

Automotive Bepair (for car owners) Oct. 5 9 

Automotive Repair (repeated) Dec. 7 9 

Plan-Beading (for builders) -Oct. 5 6 

Building Estimating Nov. 16 6 


Bookkeeping Oct. 5 18 

Typewriting (beginning) Oct. 5 12 

Business Correspondence Oct. 5 12 

Penmanship and Spelling (see Academic). 

Everyday Law and Business Practice (see Academic). 



Garment-Making I (3 units) 

Vests Oct. 5 6 

Silk Nightgowns Nov. 16 6 

Bloomers Jan. 11 6 

Garment-Making II (3 units) 

Nightgowns Oct. 5 6 

Undergarments Nov. 16 6 

House or Street Dresses Jan. 11 6 

Garment-Making III (3 units) 

Undergarments Oct. 5 6 

House Dresses Nov. 16 6 

Street or Afternoon Dresses Jan. 11 6 

Foods Work 

Plain CookingOct. 5 . 6 

Meal Preparation Nov. 16 6 

Unusual Cooking Jan. 11 6 

Fall Millinery Oct. 5 6 

Winter Millinery Nov. 16 6 

Art Craft for Women Oct. 5 12 

Art in Dress Oct. 5 6 

Home Planning and Furnishing Nov. 16 6 

Citizenship and Beginning English 

Citizenship Oct. 5 12 

Beginning English Oct. 5 . . . . 18 


Grade-School English Oct. 5 18 

Grade-School Arithmetic Oct. 5 18 

Penmanship Oct. 5 18 

Spelling Oct. 5 18 

Public Speaking I Oct. 5 12 

Public Speaking II Jan. 11 6 

High School English Oct. 5 12 

Everyday Law and Business Practice Oct. 5 12 


Physical Education (men) Oct. 5 .12 

Physical Education (women) Oct. 5 18 

Beginning Swimming (women) Oct. 5 18 

NO TUITION An enrolment fee of $1.00 is charged to those 
enrolling on the first evening of school, October 5. For those enroll- 
ing later the fee is $2.00. This fee is returned to all students having 
attendance records of 90 per cent. 

Enrolments for classes starting later than October 5, should also 
be made on the first evening, October 5. 

Evening School Announcement in a Newspaper Advertisement 


other newspaper advertising there can be little doubt. 
Advertisements usually take the form of announcements 
and notices regarding the opening of the evening schools, 
subjects scheduled, and so on. Figure 6 is an example of 
this type of advertisement. The original is two columns 
by seventeen inches. Smaller announcements of this form 
regarding the opening of new classes of the short-unit 
type after the first classes have begun have also been 
used. Size, shape, make-up and position are important 
considerations in newspaper advertising. A paid adver- 
tisement may be the means of creating additional good 
feeling on the part of the press. Sometimes a special rate 
can be secured because of the public nature of the con- 
tents or an additional run had without cost. 

Moving picture advertisements. An effective me- 
dium, sometimes overlooked, is the screen advertisement. 
There is always the probability that it will attract some 
who would otherwise not be reached. Among movie audi- 
ences there are always some fans who might to good 
advantage spend an evening or two a week at school 
instead of at their usual place of amusement. Like other 
movie advertisements, it should be brief, concise and 
catchy, so that it may be read and understood at a glance. 
A suggestive photograph or sketch helps to attract atten- 

Street-car advertising. That this form of advertising 
is recognized as an effective medium there can be little 
doubt. Its position places it where many potential eve- 
ning school pupils see it. 

Addresses. Brief addresses or spoken announcements 
are likewise effective if they can be delivered to unified 
groups. School administrators may find it extremely val- 


liable if they are permitted to make brief talks to such 
groups as men's service clubs, chambers of commerce, 
fraternal and labor organizations, and assembled groups 
of employees of industrial plants or departments. 

One form of address used in a certain community with 
unquestioned success in first inaugurating an evening 
school was that given by women day-school teachers to 
women's organizations. These teachers were coached on 
what to discuss with the women. For two or three weeks 
previous to the opening of the evening school most of 
the women's groups which met were attended by teach- 
ers who discussed the values of evening instruction, with 
particular emphasis on the offerings of interest to women. 
Contacts were made with most of the church groups, the 
federated women's clubs and some fraternal organiza- 
tions. Of unusual interest were the experiences of some 
who attended group meetings composed largely of for- 
eigners, in which their talks had to be translated by an 
interpreter. This form of advertising is effective. It 
makes evening school very real to some who might other- 
wise not be attracted. Undoubtedly its chief use is in 
connection with the inauguration of evening instruction 
in a community for the first time. 

Displays. Displays and photographs of work done in 
evening schools are usually of great interest to the public. 
They may be placed in store windows, school windows 
or cases, fairs or civic industrial exhibits. After an eve- 
ning school is established there is usually some pupil 
work that can be secured or retained for permanent 

Exhibits of work of classes in progress are likewise 
effective advertising. They are of value to the pupils of 


the classes exhibiting, and help to keep up interest in 
this form of adult education. Exhibits of this type show 
the evening schools to be active and effective institutions. 


1. Write the copy and specify the nature of the composi- 
tion for a printed poster announcing the opening of an 
evening school The poster is eleven by fourteen inches. 
All classes are to be held in one building. The city is a 
small manufacturing center of 12,000 to 15,000 popula- 
tion. Twelve classes representing various- interests of men 
and women are to be offered, 

2. Write the copy for the front page and the first inside 
page of a four-page leaflet. The city is of approximately 
50,000 population. One large cosmopolitan evening school 
is held in a high school building, and two small schools 
are located in a grade school building and a Y. M. C. A. 
A total of sixty long-unit and short-unit classes is of- 
ered. The leaflet is six by nine inches, and the inside and 
back pages are double column. 

3. Write the copy and indicate the composition of a general 
advertising circular, eight and one-half by eleven inches, 
announcing evening classes in a city of 200,000 popula- 
tion or more. Work is carried on in a dozen centers. 
Classes of the same kind meet in different centers. 

4. Write the copy of an evening school advertisement for 
a moving picture screen. 

5. Write the copy and indicate the composition of a printed 
street-car advertisement of evening schools. 

6. Write a news story of the opening of a small cosmopoli- 
tan evening school The city is a mid-western agricul- 
tural community of 15,000 population. 

7. Write a five-minute talk, for a chamber of commerce 
meeting, relative to the opening of the local evening 
schools, emphasizing commercial and industrial courses 



Alexander and Theisen, Publicity Campaigns for Better School 
Support (World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, 
New York). 

Bleyer, William J., How to Write Special Feature Articles 
(Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston). 

Brown, Glen D., "The Evening School Program Its Promo- 
tion and Maintenance," Industrial Arts Magazine (Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, November, 1927). 

Bush, Ralph EL, "The Organization of a Large Night School," 
Industrial Education Magazine (Peoria, Illinois, Oc- 
tober, 1925). 

Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, Federal Board of 
Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). Out of 

Levitt, C. E., The Savannah Book of Education, Board of 
Education (Savannah, Illinois). 

Miller, Clyde, Illustrated Course of Study, Board of Educa- 
tion (Cleveland, Ohio). 

Miller, Clyde R., and Charles, Fred, Publicity and the PubUc 
School (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston) . 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Everting 
Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 
Kansas) . 

Reprints from the Rocky Mountain News and Denver Times, 
Board of Education (Denver, Colorado). 

Reynolds, R. G., Newspaper Publicity for the Public Schools 

School Publicity, Maryland School Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 3, 
State Department of Education (Baltimore, Maryland) . 

Spencer, Paul R., "Making a Publicity Program," The Journal 
of the National Education Association (February, 

Stevenson, P. R., Educational Research Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 
8, Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio). 


Trade Extension Courses in Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 14, 
Board for Vocational Education (Springfield, Illinois) . 

Wandt, Karl K, What Have You in Your Tool Kit?, Board of 
Education (Bryant, South Dakota). 



Essential Part of Preparation for Opening o School 

In order that a term of evening school instruction may 
be quickly and effectively begun, it is quite essential that 
there be a general teachers' meeting. Even where all 
instruction is carried on in one building, this may be the 
only occasion on which all the teachers may be assem- 
bled. It is just as essential as a similar preliminary teach- 
ers' meeting or meetings of day-school teachers. The 
various matters considered are in many instances the 
same in both cases. They usually fall into two main 
groups, one dealing with registration and initial instruc- 
tion, the other with a helpful discussion of policies, aims 
and methods. In the case of evening school work the 
latter phase may be very specific in many of its aspects. 

A teachers' meeting should be attended by every 
teacher who is tentatively employed to teach some class 
which is advertised. Even if some classes do not begin 
with the opening of school, but at a later date, the teach- 
ers should be in attendance. 

In addition to any information given to the teacher 
at the time of employment a formal announcement of 
the teachers' meeting should be made. The telephone has 
been used for this purpose. Form letters, however, have 



proved a better medium. Letters should be sent out in 
ample time for arrangements for attendance to be made, 
yet not too far in advance. About four or five days is 
believed to be a satisfactory interval. Local conditions 
may dictate the policy to be followed. 

The teachers' meeting should be held in a centrally 
located building, if more than one is used for evening 
school work. Two hours is not too long a period if the 
administrator can fill that time with purposeful instruc- 
tion. If any worth-while teacher-training is to be accom- 
plished, this amount of time is certainly not too great. 

The best time for a teachers' meeting is usually in the 
evening, preferably just a day or two before school opens. 
It is essential that it be held in the evening if other than 
day-school teachers are employed. With the emphasis 
placed upon practical subjects such as trade, home-mak- 
ing, and commercial, the employment of teachers outside 
the regular school faculties becomes at times both neces- 
sary and desirable. 

Importance of a Plan 

The evening school principal or general administrator 
needs to have a carefully thought-out plaji for conduct- 
ing the teachers' meeting. Anything less on his part is 
an injustice to those who are asked to attend. The plan 
must provide for specific instruction in the method of 
registration if the teachers are to assume the major por- 
tion of this work. It must likewise provide for all neces- 
sary information relative to the continued conduct of 
classes, to school regulations of various types and to the 
making-out of required reports. If instruction in special 


problems of teaching in evening schools is to be given, 
this should also be carefully planned. 

In the above phases of an evening school teachers' 
meeting the value of mimeographed material which can 
be handed to teachers cannot be stressed too strongly. 
Instructions regarding registration and school regula- 
tions can then be read several times, and be referred to 
if necessary. In like manner, a mimeographed outline of 
important evening school problems and factors involved 
in adult teaching is of value. Attention is thus centered 
on very real problems which must be taken into consid- 
eration if evening school teaching is to be successful. 
The mimeographed material, even a single page, forms 
a constant and valuable reminder. 

The following paragraphs are brief discussions taken 
from notes of a plan for a teachers' meeting, together 
with material selected from mimeographed helps such 
as have been described. 

Fellowship and Inspiration 

Introductions of teachers. Gathered at an evening 
schpol teachers' meeting there are frequently both those 
from the outside world and those from the day-schools. 
These two groups of individuals may not be acquainted 
with each other. Sometimes teachers from different build- 
ings are not acquainted. It is the first duty of the admin- 
istrator to make all feel at ease. The quickest way of 
accomplishing this is for the principal or director to in- 
troduce each teacher to the entire group. It is most 
desirable that he should be able to name each individual 
and the class he teaches without reference to a program. 


This indication of intimate relationship between the ad- 
ministrator and his teachers not only helps to put all 
at their ease, but also serves as a guide for the relations 
desired between the teachers themselves. 

Faculty spirit. Introductions may readily be made 
the stepping-stone to a few words which may help to 
bring about a feeling of community interest among eve- 
ning school teachers. If teachers can be made to feel that 
they are members of a definitely organized faculty, and 
can be shown why they should have a feeling of pride 
in this, considerable can be accomplished in developing 
a spirit of unity and self-esteem among them. This spirit 
undoubtedly reacts upon the instruction they give in 
their class-rooms. 

If there are a number of centers, the introductions of 
the teachers may be made by buildings, so that the 
instructors may not only feel the importance of their 
work in the entire evening school organization of the 
city, but also with respect to the center in which they 

Plans for the current year. In the development of an 
evening school "spirit" among his teachers the adminis- 
trator has several instruments at his command. He may 
briefly relate how the plans for the present year were 
formulated, based on past experiences, particularly of the 
previous year. In the Annual Evening School Report, 
page 140, are data bearing on this consideration. It can be 
used to stimulate teachers with the expectation that the 
year just beginning should be the best thus far in the 
history of evening instruction in the city. 

Hopes of pupils. The administrator may comment on 
the hopes of pupils in connection with evening instruc- 


tion. A human-interest story Is effective in such cases. 
He may also tell of the telephone calls of interested 
prospective pupils. 

If there have been numerous applications from indi- 
viduals for teaching positions in the evening classes, this 
condition may be mentioned in such a way as to show 
the interest and worth-whileness of the work from this 
angle. Added significance may be given to this factor if 
the applications include a goodly number from outside 
the day-school faculties. 

Evidences of growth and development Undoubt- 
edly one of the most effective means of stimulating spirit 
and enthusiasm for the work of evening instruction is to 
record the progress made in the past year or years* Such 
items as attendance records of individuals and classes; 
development of courses of study; results of experiments 
with methods, subject-matter and administration; re- 
sults of surveys of pupils; greater efficiency in unit costs; 
and plans for new instruction and experimentation are 
among those which may be available for a brief discus- 
sion of this sort. Any of the material contained in pages 
140ff., Annual Evening School Report, might be suit- 
able for this purpose. Teachers can be made to feel that 
they are being taken into confidence, to some extent, in 
the planning and conduct of the evening schools of which 
they are a part. 

Teachers should always be encouraged to make sug- 
gestions for the betterment of their work. If a teacher 
has done a particularly meritorious piece of work in the 
past, it is desirable to explain it or have the teacher 
explain it, together with the results achieved. Recognition 
of teacher's contributions is a desirable thing to do. 


Routine Details of Organization and Administration 

The number and variety of details required of teachers 
in connection with the organization and conduct of their 
work will vary with the size and complexity of the eve- 
ning school organization and with the method of enrol- 
ment. There are some factors which operate under almost 
any circumstances. They should be discussed at the 
teachers' meeting. Some of these follow: 

Knowledge o evening school offerings. Evening 
teachers are called upon both outside of school and dur- 
ing registration for classes to tell pupils of other subjects 
than their own which are offered. They should know 
what the other subjects are which are offered in their 
building, or if it is a very large school, the department 
of which they form a part. Distribution of evening school 
circulars to all teachers, with instructions for their use 
as references, or better for actual study, has been found 
to be an effective means of imparting this type of infor- 
mation at teachers' meetings. 

Teaching materials. Every teacher should know how, 
where and when to order or procure teaching materials 
of all kinds. If books are to be procured from a school 
library, either by teachers or by pupils, the method 
employed should be understood. If textbooks are to be 
drawn from a textbook library the method of doing this 
should be known. The method of ordering, securing and 
paying for laboratory and shop supplies needs to be un- 
derstood. If pupils are to buy materials from a school 
book-shop, the method of doing so should be clear to 
the teacher that he may properly direct his pupils. If 


typewriting, mimeographing or blue-printing service is 
available to teachers for class teaching materials, the 
method of getting such work done needs explanation. 

Rooms. Teachers are generally held responsible for 
turning off the lights in their rooms. They may be re- 
quired to unlock and lock doors. They should be held 
responsible for reporting poor lighting, ventilation, or 
heating. They should likewise be held responsible for the 
ordinary care of equipment in rooms. 

Assignment of rooms should be made if the evening 
instruction is held in but one center. If there are several 
buildings to be used, the building principals may assign 
rooms. In either case, if there are many teachers em- 
ployed, a mimeographed directory of teachers, subjects 
and rooms is desirable. The data in such a directory may 
frequently be of additional service in connection with the 

Explanation of calendar. Some confusion and mis- 
understanding may be eliminated at times if the calendar 
for the year's work is fully explained. Any irregularities 
in the schedule should be definitely understood .at the 
outset. Instruction may be governed accordingly, and 
teachers will not complain about not understanding what 
was expected of them in this matter. 

At the same time that the calendar is briefly discussed, 
the regulations governing the exact time of beginning 
class work each night and the exact time of closing the 
class may be discussed. The importance of both starting 
and stopping at the appointed hour from the beginning 
of the course cannot be overemphasized. Pupils quickly 
realize the necessity of being on time if they are tardy 
and find they have missed part of the class demonstra- 


tion or lesson. If the class is closed at the appointed 
hour, possibly before a subject is completely exhausted, 
pupils will experience the feeling of necessity for further 
attendance. The pull exerted by this device, skilfully 
used, may be very considerable. 

The question of substitutes should likewise be care- 
fully explained. Factors entering into this question may 
be: notice of the need for a substitute, by whom the 
substitute is employed and the method of paying for 
substitute service. 

Explanation of periodic reports. Periodic reports 
covering the physical record of each class are essential. 
The data requested on these should be such that the 
condition of any class may be determined at any time 
by reference to a cumulative record based on these teach- 
ers' periodic reports. The weekly report illustrated in 
Figure 7 is an example of such a periodic report. 

Much of the administrator's and teachers' time may 
be saved if reports of this type are carefully explained. 
Samples may be distributed and a number of reports 
worked out by the group following the instruction of the 
administrator. No teacher should leave a meeting with- 
out a thorough knowledge of just how to enter data 
on the required reports. 

Explanation of pupil records. Whatever pupil record 
system is employed should be carefully explained. The 
system should be adapted to evening school conditions. 
Uniformity of procedure needs to be emphasized if the 
best results are to be obtained. The methods of marking 
attendance, dropping and reinstating pupils, grading 
work accomplished and making a summarized record, if 
there be one, are some of the important considerations. 


The form illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 is a combined 
registration card, attendance record, record of fees and 
summarized report of the work of each pupil. It is 

Teacher's Weekly Report 
Teacher Subject 

For Week Ending 192 Nights Taught 

1. Hours taught this week...- 

2. Average nightly attendance 

3. Pupil-hours (No. 1 x No. 2) 

4. Students ** dropped "during week......... > , 

5. New students and those readmitted this week. 
, Studen ts belonging to class last report , 

7. Students belonging end of this week (No. 

8. Total number enrolled in your class to date. ., , 

9. Percent of attendance (No. 2-J-No. 7) ..,..., 

Note: This report must be made in duplicate, One kept by the teacher for reference (item No. 
7 above) for of the following week's report, the other handed to the principal before leaving 
on the last night of the week. A student is "dropped" from those "belonging to the class 1 * after 
three successive absences, that is, on the fourth successive night of absence. Students returning 
after three successive absences should be sent to the principal for a permit to re*enter class. 
Have your reports made out by nine o'dock so that if it is possible for someone to cpllect them 
at that time they will be ready. 

Teacher's Weekly Report Form 

referred to in compiling data for an annual report. It con- 
stitutes, in this instance, the pupil's permanent record 
in all cases except those in which high school credit is 
given. Similar exceptions might be instances where 
courses cover more than one year. The desirability of 
emphasizing care in keeping accurate pupil records, 







Previous education. 

__Age under 21 over 21. 


Years experience _ 

Deposit Paid 


Attendance Record 































Ticlier-Miiric E for entry or re-entry, P for present, A for absent, D for dropped on the 
fourth night of continuous absence. Mark with capital letters, 

, S/DEfi) 

Front Face of Combined Evening 

preserving the cards and filing the same at the close of 
the instruction cannot be questioned. 

Explanation of enrolling. Where enrolling is done 
the first night of school, as is frequently the case, the 
teachers are required to assume an important part of 
this work. It should be made just as simple as possible. 
The teachers should be instructed in the exact procedure 
so that they may accomplish it with a minimum amount 
of time, effort and confusion. The work of enrolling 
should be gone over step by step with such explanations 
as may be necessary. A mimeographed sheet on which 







Age - under si 



School Enrolment and Record Card 

are outlined briefly the various steps in the enrolling 
process may be used as a basis for this discussion. Such a 
sheet in the hands of each teacher may then be studied 
again before enrolment and referred to the first evening 
if necessary. 

If there are several centers used for evening school 
work, the instructions for enrolling may be given by the 
principal of each building. In enrolling, the essential 
items should be established by the one in charge of all 
evening instruction in order that the entire systepi may 




L____ r-- . - > 

Reverse Face of Combined Evening 

The following instructions to teachers concerning the 
enrolment work are taken directly from a mimeographed 
sheet such as was referred to above. With minor varia- 
tions in wording it is applicable to the enrolment pro- 
cedure in either one building or several. See Appendix B, 
p. 366 for another example of instructions to teachers. 


In Auditorium: 

1. All pupils and teachers meet in the auditorium at 7:30. 
Men teachers please act as ushers in halls and in auditorium 
in order to get people into their seats quickly. 



STUDENT'S RECORD, 1927-1928 

(To be filled in completely by teacher ) 


T<^ No. of meetings*....., 

No. meet attended .... 

Percent attendance^** 

Class ended .* 

Hours each n^ggtifyg f .._.., 
Finai grade...* *,*...., 


Teacher ^ 

Class began....* 

Total No. of meetings..*,..- 

No. meet attended. M .v **........ 

Percent attendance . 

Class ended .*... 

Hours each meeting ..*,. 

Final gr a< ^** L .-. t T - 1 1 1 1 u -*i r j- j i- 1 j J 



Class began. , 

TotalNo meetings. . . ...,.. . 

No, meet, attended. 

Percent attendance.......... 

Class ended. 

Hours each meeting 

Final grade 

A-sopericn; B^abcwe average, C ajter^ge, D below average, PMure. 

site C) 

UBE 9 

School Enrolment and Record Card 

2. The principal will make general announcements to the 
entire school and faculty. 

3. Pupils for each class will be sent in groups to class- 
rooms. Teachers meet and help to guide them to the desig- 
nated rooms. 

In Class-Rooms: 

1. Describe the work of your course pointedly and briefly 
(five minutes). 

2. Talk privately with each pupil for a moment to assure 
yourself that he belongs in your class. Ask him and your- 
self if he will benefit most from your instructions. If you 
think not, try to help him to determine in what subject he 
had best enroll. (Some trade teachers have special regulations 


to follow in this matter.) If a satisfactory solution cannot 
be arrived at, send the pupil to Mr. at the informa- 
tion desk near the auditorium door, or to the principal as a 
last resort. Only a few should need special attention of this 

3. Distribute enrolment cards and have pupils fill them out 
(good writing), one item at a time under your instruction. 
The teacher should fill out the cards if necessary, and should 
check all items on all cards when completed. 

4. The teacher should mark "$1" under "Deposit," and date 
and his initials under "Paid," when he collects the dollar 
enrolment fee. (Pupils in second-hour classes pay no fees if 
they were in previous first-hour class. Write "no fee" under 
"Deposit" and date under "Paid" in cases of this kind.) 

5. Collect fees for materials and make proper records of 
the same. 

6. One-hour classes will be somewhat shortened. These 
teachers will need to hurry in all probability. Help pupils get 
to second-hour classes in cases where they change at 8:30, 

7. One card will be collected and the money checked with 
the cards in your rooms during the evening. Be ready as soon 
as possible. 

8. Be prepared to tell your enrolment at any time. If you 
have an oversize class, make the best of it for the first evening. 

9. All new enrolments and any changes of programs are 
to be made at the principal's office after the first night. 

10. Conduct class work. Be assured that pupils accomplish 
something definite the first night. If desirable, conduct a re- 
view of the lesson to emphasize this feeling of accomplish- 

Study of Problems o Evening School Teaching 

Part of the time of the preliminary teachers' meeting 
certainly should be given over to a discussion of the 
problems of teaching adults in evening classes. This is in 

Getting Ready for Citizenship in a New Country (Duluth) 

"You Are Never Too Old to Learn" 


reality teacher-training. For the experienced evening 
school teachers it serves as a refreshing review. For a new 
teacher it should open up vistas of new problems he will 
meet, be an inspiration for attacking them with an open 
mind and serve as an introduction to special teacher- 
training which should be provided for him. Later special 
training for evening school teaching may take any of 
several recognized forms. 

Courses of study. The importance of having an or- 
ganized course of study should be apparent to every 
teacher. It is very easy for a teacher to neglect this phase 
of his work in evening schools, and simply "teach some- 
thing" each night. The newness of the work, lack of 
standards and frequent and necessary experimentation 
all contribute to this too prevalent condition. 

If a course has been offered previously, the outline of 
subject-matter, methods of presentation and teaching 
devices should be available to a teacher, with any notes 
for revision. The teacher should go over the course of 
study thoroughly before starting to teach it again. If a 
course is being offered for the first time, the teacher 
should think through the organization of the work to a 
clearly defined objective. An outline, even though brief, 
should be worked out. It may and probably should be 
revised in details from time to time as experiences with 
classes dictate. Notes on the work of each evening should 
be kept so that an intelligent revision can be made before 
the course is repeated. 

Courses of study are frequently looked upon as one of 
the weakest phases of evening school work. The admin- 
istrator should stress this factor and outline any plans 
he may have in mind for bettering it. All teachers should 


be made to realize that any course repeated just as it 
was given previously is usually a severe indictment of a 
teacher's ability, progressiveness and aggressiveness. 

In all evening courses another goal to be striven for 
is the organization of the work in such a manner that a 
pupil may enter any night, achieve something that night 
and go on to further work with a chance for accomplish- 
ing a fair degree of success. The administrative factor 
just mentioned almost always exists, even though most 
of the pupils do enroll at the beginning of a course. This 
problem is infinitely more acute in evening schools than 
in day-schools. It has to be met. To meet it successfully 
requires that courses be minutely subdivided. One eve- 
ning should be the time-unit of instruction. Each eve- 
ning's instruction should be made to cover a definite 
piece of work. Then the pupil, though he gets a vision 
of more, knows that he has accomplished something. 

Some will argue that all work cannot be divided thus. 
It is admitted that some types of work do not lend them- 
selves to this division as readily as others do. Generally 
it is difficult in academic grade and high school classes. 
However, unless a day-school standard is imposed with 
the idea of granting day-school credit, the day-school 
plan of organizing instruction may not be said to be 
wholly in harmony with evening school concepts. The 
adults attend to achieve very definite goals. Some phases 
of work taught in day-schools may better be omitted 
from evening work. Short-unit courses in practical sub- 
jects frequently lend themselves more readily to minute 
division of specific content than do academic courses. 

After all is considered, it is true that in many subjects 
instruction and work must be based to some extent upon 


previous instruction. In such cases teaching materials 
can be so arranged and provided that individuals enter- 
ing late can be given the instruction which has already 
been covered in such a way as not to hold back the class 
as a whole. 

Short-unit courses. A brief discussion of the merits 
of short-unit courses is appropriate in a teachers' meet- 
ing if such courses are emphasized in the local evening 
school program. The psychological effect of this type of 
course cannot be questioned. The holding power on 
pupils, evidenced by the attendance records of such 
classes compared with those of classes of relatively long 
duration, is unquestionable evidence of the desirability 
of this form of organization. Unfortunately all classes 
do not lend themselves to such organization either be- 
cause of subject-matter or of minimum State require- 

Pupils do not drop out of short-unit classes as readily 
as from classes of long duration, and their attendance is 
more regular. A goal of achievement is never far distant. 
Satisfaction results from the achievement of these recog- 
nized goals. In some forms of federally aided vocational 
education, State plans emphasize a maximum number of 
hours with this in view, rather than a minimum. 

Daily lesson-plan. Teachers need to be reminded that 
lesson-plans are very essential in evening school teaching. 
Day pupils usually must be in classes. Evening pupils' 
attendance is wholly voluntary. These latter pupils are 
both judge and jury, and if the instruction they desire 
is not provided, they quickly drop out. A lesson-plan 
should be based upon the course of study, the pupils in 
the class, and the point where previous instruction ended. 


It may be desirable to work out a plan in considerable 
detail in some cases. In others a few notes are all that is 
necessary. A teacher's experience with his subject, as 
taught to adults, will also be an influencing factor. How- 
ever, no teacher should enter a classroom without hav- 
ing thought through the teaching of the evening's lesson. 

Class organization for instruction. Class organiza- 
tion for instruction may be a factor which should be 
considered at a teachers' meeting. The methods of class 
organization and consequent form of instruction may be 
of three general types. These are the class, the group and 
the individual instruction plans. Teachers should recog- 
nize the peculiar advantages and limitations of each. 
They should be able to use one or the other or all, as 
they see fit. 

At least one class lesson should be conducted at each 
meeting of the class. This procedure insures the giving 
of instruction to each pupil present. It is likewise time- 
saving to all and energy-saving to the teacher. It seldom 
can be used as the only method of conducting academic 
instruction or the demonstrations in practical subjects. 
Frequently several short class lessons in an evening are 
better than one long one. A class lesson, begun immedi- 
ately after the class is called to order, may be an added 
stimulus to pupils to be punctual in attendance. 

Group instruction and group demonstrations are fre- 
quently excellent supplements to class instruction. Where 
several in a class are experiencing the same or approx- 
imately the same difficulty, the employment of the group 
method saves much of the teacher's time and energy. 
This allows more time for class and individual instruc- 


Individual instruction, at times involving demonstra- 
tions in practical subjects, is essential to good teaching 
in most classes. It may supplement either class instruc- 
tion or group instruction or both. It is costly in teachers* 
time. Through its use as a method, recognized individual 
differences may be provided for in the instruction. Some 
members of nearly all classes will require individual help. 

Trained teachers recognize the value of each of the 
three types of instruction just enumerated. Teachers not 
trained in pedagogy may not recognize these differences 
and values. The latter teachers are sometimes of neces- 
sity found in evening schools. Whether teachers have 
much or little training in pedagogy the evening school 
administrator or supervisor may do well to discuss briefly 
these three methods. A careful balancing of a teacher's 
time between class instruction and either group or indi- 
vidual instruction or both is essential if the greatest 
achievement is to result from the time available for each 
lesson. Every evening school teacher needs to be made 
conscious of this fact, for time is an important factor in 
evening education. 

Individual differences. Many evening school classes 
present the problem of individual differences in a very 
marked degree. Teachers must be trained to recognize 
these differences if they are to be successful in their 
work. Adults, because of age and experience, apparently 
vary more than young people. In almost any class the 
variety of individual differences is greater than is found 
in day-school classes, either in the grades or in high 

Some individual differences are physical; some are 
mental. Some differences are hereditary; some are en- 


vlronmentaL Below aare listed some of the outstanding 
individual differences which an evening school teacher 
is called upon to recognize in his approach to the pupils 
and conduct of the instruction. 


Ability to speak and understand English. 

Daily occupations. 

Knowledge of their own occupational fields. 

Mental attitude toward school, teacher and instruction. 

Physical condition after day's work. 

Physical effort necessary to attend school. 

Home conditions affecting school attendance. 

Previous schooling. 

Teachers should attempt to analyze individual differ- 
ences as early in a course as possible. After discovering 
them he should keep them in mind at all times in order 
that instruction and approach to the pupils may be gov- 
erned accordingly. 

Importance of the first evening. No preliminary 
teachers' meeting should be permitted to close until the 
great importance of the first evening's work has been 
stressed. Brief reference has been made to this factor. 
No pupil should be allowed to leave his class the first 
night without the teacher's being certain that the pupil 
has accomplished something tangible. A very consider- 
able part of the pupil mortality in the first two weeks 
of evening school can be traced to failure in this partic- 

A teacher can attempt to get either an oral or written 
expression from each member of his class as to what that 
pupil hopes to accomplish from the course. These expres- 


sions of pupil hopes should be kept in mind by the 
teacher. Courses should be modified or adapted to the 
expressed needs of the pupils if this is at all feasible. 
The primary object of evening school work is to help 
adult individuals to master deficiencies of various kinds 
which they recognize in themselves, and which they 
desire to overcome. If the instruction which a pupil hopes 
to get appears to be hopelessly out of the range of a 
given class in which he is enrolled, he should be told so 
very early in order that a transfer to another class may be 
made if he desires it. Provision should be made for educa- 
tional guidance and recognition of individual differences. 
Teacher judged by holding power on the class. It is 
true that the mental development or achievements, or 
the physical skill and products resulting from his instruc- 
tion are important measures of an evening teacher's abil- 
ity and success. However, it cannot be denied that the 
ability to hold a class, secure a high percentage of at- 
tendance, and have punctual students comprises another 
reliable measuring-stick of the value and success of an 
evening teacher's instruction. These latter factors cannot 
be overlooked. The initial pupil mortality of a class and 
the periodic and annual reports of enrolment, average 
attendance and percentage of attendance cannot but in- 
fluence the impression gained of a class and its teacher. 
These factors are taken into consideration when plans 
for classes and teachers for the ensuing year are made. 
The teacher who has a well-organized course of study, 
plans each evening's lesson, recognizes individual differ- 
ences and plans his methods of class organization and 
instruction accordingly, may be sure of reasonable suc- 



1. List all of the items you as a principal would discuss 
at a preliminary teachers ' meeting in a center in which 
one trade, two commercial, one home-making, two ele- 
mentary grade, and two Americanization classes are to 
be held. 

2. Outline a five-minute talk the purpose of which is to 
develop a friendly attitude among the teachers of an 
evening school, and which also will attempt to foster 
pride in their work, and develop a group or unified faculty 

3. Why does mimeographed material, handed to teachers, 
make an excellent supplement to oral instruction in con- 
nection with enrolling or teacher training? 

4. The matter under consideration at a teachers' meeting 
is that of problems in evening school teaching. Upon 
what would you center particular attention if all of the 
teachers taught the various practical subjects? What 
teaching factors would you emphasize if all of the 
teachers taught academic subjects? 


Burton, William H., Supervision of the Improvement of Teach- 
ing (D. Appleton and Company, New York), Ch. XIV. 

Cubberley, Ellwood P., Public School Administration (Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, Boston), pp. 233-234. 

Smith, Homer J., Industrial Education (The Century Co., 
New York), pp. 144-148. 



Common Methods of Enrolling 

Evening school enrolment is usually conducted by one 
of two methods. These are (1) enrolment on days or 
evenings preceding the opening of school and (2) enrol- 
ment on the first evening of school. Both methods have 
advantages and disadvantages. The selection of the 
method used may be influenced by several factors. 

Generally enrolment in evening classes is not as in- 
volved a process as is necessary in day-schools. Credits 
earned, credits required for graduation and grouping 
according to intelligence test scores are factors which 
require less attention in the former case. Exceptions must 
be noted of those instances where pupils are working for 
a grade or high school diploma, or are following a series 
of subjects in a course covering a period of years. In 
these cases cumulative records must be kept and enrol- 
ments checked with them. 

One factor operating in evening school enrolment 
which is just as essential as it is in junior and senior hi^b 
schools is the matter of educational' and sometimes voca- 
tional guidance. One might judge that at times this fac- 
tor would be of even greater importance because of the 
age of the pupils and the seriousness of purpose which 



brings many of them to the evening school. Evidences 
are not lacking that one of the most pressing needs in 
connection with evening school work is better vocational 
and educational guidance service. It must be adapted to 
the types of pupils found in this branch of education, 
and to their particular needs. 

Enrolment previous to school opening. One, two or 
more days or evenings, or both days and evenings, usually 
are set aside for enrolling purposes. Pupils come to the 
place or places where the enrolling is done and confer 
with those who are in charge. Specially recognized needs 
influence or dictate the subject or subjects selected. The 
pupils go to the center in which their class meets the 
first night of class work. All in a building may go to an 
assembly room and then be directed to their class-rooms. 
or they may go directly to class-rooms, being guided by 
teachers, signs or posted notices. The enrolment cards 
or subject registration cards will have been distributed 
to teachers previously. Instruction can be begun with- 
out other than routine details. 

Advantages. The advantages of this method of en- 
rolling are apparent. Through its use there is consider- 
able opportunity for vocational and educational guid- 
ance. The initial enrolment for each subject is known 
before the class meets. It is therefore possible to form 
additional classes, discontinue classes for which there is 
insufficient enrolment and make any other necessary ad- 
justments and preparations before classes assemble. The 
greater personal attention given to pupils in the selection 
of subjects results in less likelihood of their becoming 
drop-outs, or wishing transfers to other classes, and is 
well worth the effort expended. 


Disadvantages. There are also disadvantages in this 
method of enrolling. A break of several days between the 
time of registration and the beginning of class work is 
almost a certain cause for the non-appearance of some 
who have enrolled. The enthusiasm for initiating the 
work has had an opportunity to cool off. With some it 
is essential that instruction be started before this spirit 
which animated them to enroll has found a new channel 
With this method of enrolling the writer experienced in 
a given year a loss of 7 per cent of the initial enrolment 
through non-appearance for classes during the first week. 
This high percentage at that time may have been caused 
largely by the total lack of guidance in the selection of 
subjects. In subsequent years this loss was reduced 

Additional administrative work is usually entailed by 
the use of this method of enrolling. The building prin- 
cipal and his corps of helpers must do a very consider- 
able part of the entering of data on the enrolment blanks. 
This work is spread among a number of teachers and 
nearly all pupils through the use of the method described 
later. There is usually considerable labor involved in 
sorting cards for classes and for the office, though care- 
ful planning of the form of the enrolment blanks may 
eliminate some of this. 

When this method should be used. From the ex- 
perience of the writer he would judge that enrolment 
previous to initial class work is desirable for the year 
in which the schools are first organized in a community. 
Adequate provision for guidance, especially educational, 
should be available, however. It appears that this method 
of enrolling might likewise be followed for a few years 


until the public recognizes the nature of evening school 
education and becomes acquainted with the content and 
nature of basic subjects and courses of study. 

Enrolling the first evening of school. When this 
method of enrolling is followed, pupils gather at centers 
where they know subjects which they desire are offered. 
They are directed immediately to the auditorium or 
assembly room. At the appointed hour (and most eve- 
ning pupils are on time for enrolment) the building prin- 
cipal calls the assembly to order. A few words of greeting 
are in order. Brief mention may be made of past achieve- 
ments. The last annual report for that building or the 
entire system may provide the material. This reference 
may lead to a few words about the plans and prepara- 
tions for the current year. Possibly a national song may 
be sung by the assemblage. 

Following this introductory part of the proceedings, 
the business of enrolling may begin. There may be in- 
structions to all regarding days and hours of meeting, 
room numbers by floors if the building is large, and so 
on. The principal may then begin dividing those assem- 
bled into classes. One rnethed followed is to announce a 
subject and ask all to stand who desire to enroll in it. 
These are counted and the principal decides whether 
there is a sufficient number to warrant forming the class. 
If the number is large enough these pupils are sent to a 
designated room. 

Another method of procedure followed at this point 
is to announce the name of a subject and ask all who 
desire to enroll in it to go directly to a designated room. 
Determination of whether a given class has sufficient 
enrolment to warrant its formation is deferred, in cases 


where there is any question about it, until the teacher 
can report to the principal on the matter. Either type 
of procedure presupposes the establishment of a rule 
regarding minimum enrolment in classes. It is wise at 
times to hold this rule in abeyance for one or two ses- 
sions when the minimum number is closely approached. 
Late enrolments may bring the number in such instances 
to the minimum requirement. Attempts of pupils to per- 
suade others to enter a class in. order that the minimum 
number required may be reached are frequently unsatis- 
factory in the long run. 

In sending groups of pupils to class-rooms the prin- 
cipal should have a definite order for calling off the 
names of classes. Enrolments for classes meeting one 
hour only should be called for first, and the pupils sent 
to the designated rooms. All available time is usually 
needed by teachers having first-hour classes to complete 
the enrolment and to get the class work under way. 

Other factors may influence the order in which classes 
are called. The room facilities for handling expected 
large groups have been such a factor. A device has also 
been used of placing at the end of the list the call for 
very popular classes, such as physical education and some 
forms of commercial work. This is done frankly with 
the idea that such pupils as are not steadfast and fully 
determined upon the subject they wish to enroll in might 
be tempted to join other classes. This procedure undoubt- 
edly places them as well as can be done without exten- 
sive guidance, and it tends to relieve crowded conditions 
where it is known they will exist. The guidance of the 
class-room teacher in cases of this sort may help such 
pupils. These individuals are unquestionable evidence 


of the need for developing evening school technique in 

The remainder of the enrolling is largely in the hands 
of class-room teachers. A method of procedure was sug- 
gested in the copy of a mimeographed sheet of instruc- 
tions to teachers on pages 84-86. 

Advantages* The advantages of this method of en- 
rolling are well defined. The break of several days, pos- 
sibly, between enrolment and the first class work is 
eliminated. This factor was discussed in connection with 
the method of enrolling previous to school opening. It is 
unquestionably of the greatest advantage. Administrative 
work for the principal during the enrolling period is 
greatly reduced by delegating much of it to class-room 
teachers and the pupils under their supervision. From 
the standpoint of financial costs, this method involves 
less outlay for enrolling than the one first described. 

Disadvantages. The disadvantages of the second 
method are equally specific. There is much less oppor- 
tunity for educational guidance. This is due to the fact 
that all teachers, irrespective of training or ability, may 
be called upon to give educational advice; and also to the 
fact that the numbers desiring consultation may be con- 
siderable in any one class, and the time available for 
this purpose short. The employment of this means of 
registration makes imperative the operation of some kind 
of an organized educational guidance service to which 
any pupil may go or be sent. 

Placing a considerable part of the enrolment in the 
hands of a number of teachers multiplies the chances for 
errors considerably, no matter how conscientious the 
teachers may be. A close check of all cards should be 


made just as rapidly as possible after the enrolment is 

One unfavorable condition cannot be removed by 
either method. There will always be some individuals 
appearing after class work has begun. If this condition is 
aggravated, it may cause much additional administrative 
work and necessitate numerous adjustments. A higher 
enrolment fee for late entrance has been found to alle- 
viate this condition somewhat. 

Observation of this factor of tardy enrolment in two 
successive years, using first one method of enrolment and 
then the other, indicated no striking advantage of one 
over the other. One may be tempted to surmise that con- 
tinued use of the method of combining enrolling with the 
first evening of instruction eventually might have a tend- 
ency to reduce somewhat the number of tardy entrants. 

When this method should be used. It has been 
pointed out that the use of the method of enrolling 
previous to the beginning of class work may have advan- 
tages which outweigh disadvantages in the first year or 
years of work. After the evening school and its offerings 
become well known generally throughout a community, 
enrolment on the first evening of school may and prob- 
ably will be a more feasible method to follow. It is a fact 
that large and successful evening schools, well estab- 
lished, follow this latter procedure in enrolling. Late 
enrolments are generally made in the office irrespective of 
what the initial method of enrolling is. 

Double enrolment. The procedure of having a pre- 
liminary enrolment preceding final enrolment is advo- 
cated by some, especially in connection with trade sub- 
jects. Through the employment of this method, 


prospective pupils might enroll during a period of a num- 
ber of weeks preceding the opening of school It is then 
possible to determine beforehand quite definitely what 
classes will be formed. Opportunity is provided for guid- 
ance. This procedure makes possible a better survey of 
pupils, the work at which they are employed, and their 
ambitions, before the final enrolment is made. This is 
going a step further in the interests of better guidance 

Physical Arrangements for Enrolling 

The physical arrangements provided may be made to 
assist greatly or retard evening school enrolment. Inade- 
quately planned, these may cause some to turn away 
because of timidity or misunderstanding. The building 
and outside approaches should be well lighted. Signs and 
placards should provide all necessary directions and in- 
structions until the prospective pupil receives oral direc- 
tions. A desirable practice is to have some person near 
the door to assist, greet or advise those who appear to be 
hesitant about entering and enrolling. 

Before the beginning of class work. If the enrolling 
is done at designated times previous to the first class 
work; the physical arrangements may assume great im- 
portance. The room, rooms or corridor should be of ample 
size to allow pupils to get to the enrolment desks. Above 
each enrolment desk should be a sign indicating the sub- 
ject or subjects for which registration may there be made. 
Each teacher may enroll for his own class; or a person 
competent to enroll for several subjects closely associated, 
or for an entire department, as home-making, may be 
more desirable. Numbers enrolling for various subjects 


may be the guiding factor in determining how many will 
assist with this work. Those doing the enrolling must 
know of any requirements for entrance to designated 
classes and be guided thereby. 

Some system of checking the enrolment by classes is 
essential in order that more pupils are not enrolled than 
can be accommodated. This factor is an important one in 
instances where additional classes of a similar nature can- 
not be provided. 

If writing space, pencils and some assistance are pro- 
vided, a large part of the writing in of data on many 
enrolment blanks can be done by the pupils. Much time 
may be saved by this method in all instances where pupils 
have definitely determined just what the subject or sub- 
jects are for which they wish to enroll. 

Where some form of guidance is provided for those who 
desire or need it, much patience, courtesy, tact and 
friendliness are necessary. Those doing enrolling need to 
be observant of the mental states of the pupils who come 
to them seeking help, seeking education. We can recall, 
most of us, with what awe, and sometimes fear and 
trembling, we may have approached the first enrolment in 
a college or university, or high school, or even a change 
from one grade school to another. This mental state is 
often present, but in an even greater degree, in many of 
those who approach an evening school enrolment desk. 
Those enrolling who have had little or no formal educa- 
tion, or who have not been in school for many years, very 
often have a respect almost approaching veneration for 
schools and teachers. No other explanation can be offered 
for the appearance of beads of perspiration which form 
on the brow of the adult, for the quivering hand and for 


the catch in the voice. Those enrolling evening school 
pupils need to be observant and to conduct their personal 
contacts with individuals accordingly. 

When enrolling and class work are done together. 
The physical arrangements are usually not as extensive 
for enrolment by this method as for the one just de- 
scribed. Pupils need to be directed to the assembly hall 
and seated. The instructions there given them must be 
brief and specific. Pupils should be told of the location of 
the room for a designated class. When the pupils leave 
the assembly, the teacher may assist in guiding them to 
iheir room. Writing places are usually available in any 
school-room of whatever type. A method of conducting 
the enrolment in each class-room has been described. 
Specific instructions, care and proper, tactful personal 
contacts are important factors in this step in the pro- 

Enrolment Cards 

The question of enrolment cards is an important one. 
It is worthy of much thought. Carefully planned, they 
make systematic enrolment of pupils and organization of 
classes assured. Without careful planning they may be 
the cause of much confusion. The factors about which the 
greatest difficulties center are return of enrolment fees, 
enrolment for more than one class each evening and 
enrolment for two or more short-unit classes. 

Enrolment cards may serve any or all of several pur- 
poses. They may record the enrolment in the school, 
registration for various classes, fees, personal data, class 
attendance and students' accomplishments in their classes. 
These data are at times on a number of cards, or cards 


with detachable stubs. Enrolment cards are used by 
teachers and principal for several purposes. 

Enrolment cards do and should vary with regard to the 
data called for. Facts desired by the local authorities to 
be used in making plans for successive years and data 
desired for annual reports may be asked for. Information 
about classes, demanded by State authorities in cases of 
financial aid, may be asked for. The pupil's name, ad- 
dress and telephone number, occupation and previous 
schooling, the class in which he is enrolled and data con- 
cerning enrolment fees are commonly recorded. 

The size and form of the cards vary considerably. The 
entire system of enrolment and other records should be 
kept as simple as possible. The enrolment card should 
be planned to record those facts which can be secured 
most readily at the time of enrolment. It must, however, 
be kept in mind that simplicity and briefness are impor- 
tant factors because of the time required to fill out these 
cards, no matter what process of enrolling is followed. 

Single enrolment card. Single enrolment cards are 
used in many places. Three inches by five, four by six 
and five by eight inches are common sizes because of the 
ease with which they may be filled in standard filing 
cases. It has been found in a large school in an industrial 
community that one such card can be filled out by most 
pupils. It is really a request for courses, and provides for 
listing occupational and educational evidence to support 
the request. These facts are to be recorded on one side of 
the card. On the reverse side is a record of enrolment and 
book fees. The size is three by five inches. It is apparent 
that some form of program card must be made out for 
the pupil's guidance; the teacher must have some method 


of keeping attendance records; and if a report of the 
pupil's work is to be made, that likewise must be provided 

Another four-by-six inch annual register card used in 
St. Louis is printed on one side. It contains spaces for the 
usual data commonly found on enrolment cards. In addi- 
tion, ruled spaces are provided for attendance records for 
three terms of school There is space for a grade to be 
given for the work at the close of the instruction. In this 
city, program cards are also provided for the pupils, and 
their deposit and duplicate deposit receipts are per- 

In large cities having a number of centers and also in 
single large schools in smaller cities the practice of num- 
bering cards is commonly employed. This is especially 
desirable in connection with the handling of enrolment 

Carbon copy form. A method employed by the writer 
at one time was to have an enrolment sheet superimposed 
upon an enrolment card with carbon paper between them. 
The printed forms were not unlike the perforated card 
illustrated in Figures 8 and 9. Side (2), Figure 8, was 
a sheet of paper not printed on the reverse side. It was 
the original paper copy and was filed in the principal's 
office. All of the data and information asked for on side 
(2) was exactly similar on side (1) down to " Attendance 
Becord." The card, side (1), was sent to or kept by the 
teacher for the attendance record, personal data, and 
pupil record on the reverse side, shown in Figure 9. 

Several-part perforated form. An enrolment blank 
which combines several parts of evening school enrolling 
on a card with perforated stubs is quite common. This 


same general form is used in other types of schools for 
enrolling pupils. The stubs may be as few or as many as 
desired. Some may be sent to one office, some to another, 
some may be given to the pupil. Much of the data 
recorded may be a duplication. Usually such perforated 
enrolment blanks have their several parts numbered with 
the same number, which is the pupiPs identification num- 
ber for the year or course. 

One such enrolment blank has the spaces for commonly 
requested personal information. It is the office card and 
is numbered. A first stub, similarly numbered, is the 
pupil's receipt for his enrolment fee. A second stub serves 
as a program card for the class in which the pupil is 
enrolled, and likewise as an entrance slip to classes. Rec- 
ords of attendance and grades given for the work accom- 
plished are kept in record books. 

Combined enrolment blank, attendance record and 
work report. The combined record blank illustrated in 
Figures 8 and 9 has been in a process of evolution for a 
number of years in the writer's organization. It has been 
planned to meet certain conditions. It is illustrated and 
described here more to show how these blanks need to be 
planned to meet local conditions than as an example of 
some new and particularly meritorious form. The size of 
each half of this perforated blank is four and one-half by 
five and three-fourths inches. 

An analysis of the chief administrative conditions of 
an evening school system should be made when planning 
the enrolment blank and any other related forms, if there 
be such. In the organization using the above blank, but 
one enrolment fee is paid, irrespective of whether a pupil 
is in one or more classes following each other in time 


sequence or paralleling each other on the same evenings* 
Pupils are allowed to enroll for classes succeeding each 
other at the time of initial enrolment. Enrolments are 
made in classes the first evening of school. Late enrol- 
ments are made in the principal's office. Teachers record 
enrolment fees, figure percentages of attendance and are 
given the necessary funds with which to return fees to 
those who earn their return through a high percentage of 
attendance. Classes are of both one-hour and two-hour 

In the above case a system of enrolment and of pupil 
records was wanted which would be both simple and 
comprehensive. It was desired that all of this data be on 
a single or perforated card, except in such instances as 
required cumulative records. These blanks were to be so 
designed that pupils and teachers could insert the data 
in various sections readily. 

An analysis of the final development of this particular 
enrolment card (Figures 8 and 9), designed to meet the 
above conditions, follows: 

Side (1), Figure 8, is the front side of the pupil's card 
which is kept by the teacher, follows the pupil through 
his classes and eventually forms his permanent record of 
work. Side (3), Figure 9, is the reverse of this half of 
the blank. Side (2), Figure 8, is the office half of the 
blank, used for various purposes. The reverse side of the 
office card is blank (Figure 9). The office card is destroyed 
when such names and addresses have been taken from it 
as are desired the following year in connection with 

Side (1) of the permanent record card has the date 


(year) printed on it to save time in enrolling. A space is 
provided for "previous education" to assist teachers or 
others in the educational guidance of the pupils. The 
spaces for checking age provide information of value to 
teachers of some subjects. A space for recording the occu- 
pation of the pupil has a twofold aim. It may be used in 
educational guidance. At times it is necessary that the 
pupil's occupation be known to assure administrators that 
a given pupil is eligible for a certain class. This question 
arises in connection with some federally aided classes, 
wherein instruction must be such as to supplement daily 
employment. "Years experience" may provide informa- 
tion of value in guidance, and in shaping instruction in a 
class to help meet individual needs. 

Under "Classes" is recorded the class (or possibly more 
than one if several succeed each other). If classes parallel 
each other on the same evenings a separate enrolment 
blank is prepared in each class. 

Under "Deposit" is written the enrolment fee, one 
dollar. As Americanization classes do not pay a fee, "no 
fee" is written for students in these classes. Where two 
classes meet on the same evenings, the fee is paid in the 
first class. In the second class, "no fee" is written. Under 
"Paid" the date of payment is inserted and initialed by 
the teacher. When the fee is returned, the date is written 
under "Returned" and likewise initialed. Considerable 
responsibility is placed upon the teacher by this method 
of recording fees. It relieves the administrator of much 
routine work by spreading it. Financial records are writ- 
ten in ink, and therefore no occasion exists for numbering 
these cards and giving the pupils receipts. Fees axe re- 
turned in class-rooms the last evening of the class. Cal- 


culations having to do with return of fees are made by 
the teacher. 

The principal with the teacher's help may return the 
fees to those pupils who have earned them. If many 
pupils are to receive fees, the principal may hand the 
required lump sum to the teacher for distribution. 

The attendance record is combined with the enrolment. 
The marking procedure is apparent from a study of side 
(1), Figure 8. 

On the reverse side of this card (side (3), Figure 9), 
spaces are provided for recording important items in a 
pupil's accomplishment in his work in three classes. This 
number was selected because in the system in which the 
card was used a pupil might enroll in three short units of 
work succeeding each other during one year or term of 

Frequently succeeding classes are taught by the same 
teacher, the work becoming more advanced in character. 
In such cases the teacher keeps the cards for later use. 
If a pupil is not to appear in a later course with the same 
teacher, his fee is returned to him if he has earned its 
return; or, if he desires to transfer to the class of another 
teacher, the card is sent to the principal's office at the 
close of a course. From there it is sent to the teacher of 
the new class which the pupil desires to enter. The name 
of the new class may have been or may then be entered 
on the second space provided for classes, side (1). At the 
close of that class the pupil's accomplishments again will 
be recorded in the proper spaces on side (3). At the close 
of the pupil's work (at the end of any course) this card 
is sent to the principal's office for filing as the pupil's 
permanent record for that year. Except in some academic 


classes no cumulative records are made. For the latter 
the day-school forms are used. In a large system this 
plan might not be feasible. 

If a pupil enrolls in two single-period classes on the 
same evenings of the week, he fills in two complete 
enrolment blanks. Both cards are used exactly as was just 
described, except that at the close of any class for which 
he made no deposit and which is marked "no fee' 7 under 
"Deposit/ 7 he receives none, even though his attendance 
record would entitle him to it. If he earns the return of 
the fee in the other one-period class, he gets it back at 
the close of that class. If either or both one-period classes 
do not extend over the entire period of evening school, 
either or both cards may be transferred to other classes. 

If a pupil attends more than one class in succeeding 
order, his percentage of attendance and consequent re- 
turn of fee is determined by checking his attendance from 
the time of entrance. If several short-unit courses are of 
equal length, calculating percentage can be done quickly 
by averaging the several percentages recorded on side (3). 

The office card, side (2), contains data for locating 
pupils in classes. To be wholly accurate in this respect it 
must be brought up to date if pupils enroll for more than 
one course. If a pupil enrolls in parallel one-period classes 
on the same evenings, the two cards are clipped together 
or the class name on one is transferred to the other and 
the one destroyed. Where classes follow each other, the 
pupils frequently enroll for two or three classes, as the 
case may be, at the time of initial enrolment. 

The office card also has on it the home or business 
address and telephone number for use in case this infor- 
mation is needed. The check of the pupil's age is included 


chiefly because these cards are kept until the following 
year, when they are used again in the sending of evening 
school circulars or letters. Only those names checked as 
being over twenty-one years are included in this Kst. All 
under that age receive literature because of their being 
recorded in census lists specially prepared. This procedure 
prevents duplication. In a large city such extensive ad- 
vertising would in many instances be prohibitive because 

of cost. 

This rather minute analysis of the above composite 
card is made chiefly to indicate how a desirable form can 
be planned, based upon an analysis of local administra- 
tive conditions and a conception of the general character 
of the system desired. It has been used in approximately 
this form for several years. It meets present local condi- 
tions exceedingly well. It is quite likely that it would have 
very real weaknesses in a system of different administra- 
tive organization and of much larger size. 

Enrolment Fees 

The question of enrolment fees has numerous angles 
not noted above. The chief purpose of an enrolment fee 
is to stimulate pupils to make their attendance continu- 
ous. That it operates toward this desired end there can 
be no doubt. 

Amount o enrolment fee. The amount charged for 
an enrolment fee varies. Usually it is one or two dollars. 
State and federal laws regulate this fee in the case of 
some specially aided classes. Tuition fees may not be 
charged for State and federally aided classes. A higher 
enrolment fee for late attendance; as was noted previ- 


ously, has a tendency to spur people to enroll at the 
opening of school. To some the return of the enrolment 
fee means nothing. They would be glad to have the school 
keep it. Some have attempted to give it to teachers who 
they feel have done much to help them. To others the fee 
means considerable. The latter pupils make a decided 
effort to secure its return. They will calculate at the very 
opening of school just how many absences are allowed 
them if they are to have it returned. 

All enrolment fees should be the same. If an additional 
amount is specified for a given class, as commonly hap- 
pens in vocational subjects, this should be collected in 
class as a material fee. Some unaided art and arts-and- 
crafts classes have tuition charges in place of material 
fees. In many communities no enrolment fee is charged 
for any type of Americanization class. 

How the fee is levied and returned. The practices 
followed in the collecting and returning of enrolment fees 
vary. Where a fee is charged for each class in which a 
pupil enrolls, more routine and handling of money is 
necessary, but less confusion is likely. A numbered enrol- 
ment blank for each class, a similarly numbered student 
receipt stub for it, collection of the fee, and return of the 
same with proper checking complete the financial trans- 
actions in a given class. 

A method employed in cases where but one fee is col- 
lected in a year for any number of classes was explained 
in the analysis of the enrolment blank illustrated in Fig- 
ures 8 and 9. 

The administrative organization must be such that fees 
can be returned at any time in instances where the organ- 
ization of short-unit courses is a school policy. Otherwise 


fees are returned at the close of the evening school term 
or its divisions. 

A policy must be determined upon in regard to the 
calculation of percentages of attendance of those who 
enter after a class has begun. This is a vital question 
because the return of some enrolment fees may depend 
upon the policy pursued. Since it is frequently difficult 
to determine just why pupils do not enter a class when it 
begins, it seems only just that all attendance figures 
should be calculated from the date of entrance to the end 
of the course, rather than from the beginning of a class. 
Since the chief purpose of enrolment fees is to stimulate 
attendance, this aim would usually be defeated by the 
employment of any other method than the one indicated. 

It has been found desirable to make provision for ex- 
ceptions to the usual regulations regarding the return of 
fees. A very poor pupil's having to drop out because of 
work or change of residence might be an instance where 
an exception should be made. Another condition which 
appears, particularly in short-unit courses, is that in 
which an absence of but one or two nights out of the few 
in the course brings the percentage of attendance just 
slightly under the minimum. To secure a return of the fee 
in such an instance would require a percentage of attend- 
ance considerably above the minimum set. 

A good policy to pursue is to require that pupils be 
present in person on the designated evening in order to 
secure the return of enrolment fees due them because of 
good attendance. This is usually the last night of a class 
or term, but not necessarily so. Evening school announce- 
ments should contain a statement making such a regula- 
tion clear. 


Attendance required for return of fees. There is 
nothing inherent in the idea of enrolment fees which 
suggests that these should not be kept by the school. 
They have been looked upon as a legitimate charge made 
to cover the cost of enrolling. However, in evening school 
education a definite conception of the chief purpose of 
an enrolment fee has been noted, namely the stimulation 
of attendance through a promise of its return. Common 
practice places the attendance percentage at either 75 or 
80 per cent for the return of the fee. 

With the latter concept of the enrolment fee in mind, 
the writer experimented to discover whether justifiable 
results would obtain if the required percentage of attend- 
ance were raised. For the year 1923-1924 the percentage 
of attendance required for the return of enrolment fees 
was 75. The following year this was raised to 90 per cent. 
Unfortunately no statistical data are available for com- 
parison, but a paragraph in the annual report for the 
latter year notes this change. Part of the statement fol- 
lows : "Instead of reducing the number of enrollment fees 
returned the opposite has been found true. More were 
returned under the 90 per cent requirement than under 
the 75 per cent requirement." No unfavorable comment 
was caused by the raising of the requirement. 

Items 1 and 2 of Table I of the Annual Evening School 
Report, page 144, shows the physical growth of the even- 
ing school under consideration beginning with the year 
the 90 per cent requirement was instituted. Item 12 shows 
the growth in the number having 90 per cent attendance 
records and consequent return of fees. The yearly per- 
centage of increase in those achieving 90 per cent records 
has grown more rapidly than the percentage of increase 


in the enrolment of the school. Undoubtedly all credit for 
this is not due to the increase in the attendance require- 
ment. Short-unit courses, better organization of courses 
and better teaching have all contributed. The point made 
is that if the enrolment fee is to be returned for excellent 
attendance, the greatest possible good should be made of 
this regulation by setting the minimum high. 

The reader is referred to Appendix B for additional 
forms used in enrolling. 


1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of enrolling 
evening school pupils previous to the opening of school 
for class work. 

2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of enrolling 
evening school pupils on the opening night of instruction. 

3. Point out wherein the method of enrolling beforehand 
has particular advantages over the alternative method 
for the first year or two. 

4. Explain the importance of planning for a definite anti 
simple procedure of enrolment, together with the values 
derived from making the physical arrangements for this 
process quite self-evident. 

5. Why is it essential that an analysis be made of the chief 
factors in the organization and operation of specific eve- 
ning schools, when planning an enrolment card or series 
of cards for that purpose? 


Bush, Ralph H., "The Organization of a Large Night School," 
The Industrial Education Magazine (October, 1925). 

Edgerton, A. H. ; Vocational Guidance and Counseling (The 
Macmillan Company, New York). 


Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, Federal Board 

for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). Out of 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 

Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 

Trade and Industrial Education, Bulletin No. 17, Federal 

Board for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 



The keeping of adequate and accurate records of vari- 
ous kinds is very essential. Even if the evening school is 
small, it is necessary that records be kept of attendance, 
finances, grades given, school materials and the like. 
These records are just as important as those required in 
the operation of day-schools. Upon the basis of these 
records it is frequently necessary to compile State reports. 
State recognition of teachers and classes, and State and 
federal aid are dependent upon reports based on records 
of various kinds. Class records are also of great help in 
planning future class offerings and in selecting teachers 
for the ensuing year. If for no other reason than that of 
efficiency, records should be accurately kept of the im- 
portant phases of the conduct of evening schools. Admin- 
istrators of evening schools should be able to determine 
important facts at any time. 

It is essential that records be systematized. This means 
the preparation of forms on which to record the data 
desired. These forms may be mimeographed or printed, 
preferably the latter. The number of forms used depends 
upon the size and complexity of the evening school organ- 
ization, data required in the certification of teachers, 
recognition of classes, State and federal aid and informa- 
tion desired by the local authorities. The use of prepared 



forms avoids confusion, and saves the time of both the 
teachers and the administrator. However, only those facts 
which are actually needed and used should be asked for. 
Forms should always be as simple as possible ; they should 
be an aid and not a hindrance in the conduct of individual 
classes and the entire evening school system. 

Pupil Records 

One type of record which is very essential is the one of 
the individual pupil. This should certainly include his 
attendance and the grade of work accomplished. It may 
include other items. Record books such as are used in day 
classes are sometimes used. When they are, a more per- 
manent form must be provided for a consolidated record 
which should be filed for possible future reference. Cards, 
with perforated attachments, such as are used in some 
colleges and universities, are also used for recording at- 
tendance, grades and the like. The form illustrated in 
Figures 8 and 9 was described therein in detail. The 
pupil's half of such a card provides space for commonly 
needed enrolment data, records of enrolment fee or fees, 
attendance record and record of achievement in class or 
classes. The form of forms used in keeping records must 
be such that a permanent record is left on file in the 
school. Simplicity in this procedure is much to be desired. 

Permanent School Records of Work 

Brief note has been made of permanent records to be 
filed in the school. In systems where several schools are 
operated, the adoption of a standard form is essential. 


It is imperative that such a record be kept in cases where 
a pupil pursues a course or a series of related courses over 
a period of two or three years. It is also imperative in 
eases where pupils are pursuing elementary grade or 
junior or senior high school courses leading toward 
diplomas. If in the latter case the offerings parallel the 
|&y subjects, it is possible to use the permanent record 
4| the day-schools. If other than strictly grade or junior 
0jj> senior high school subjects are recorded, a special form 
^necessary. In many ways it seems desirable that the 
Immanent record of evening instruction should be differ- 
gfkfc from the one used in day-schools. 

An excellent permanent record card is one used in 
Minneapolis. On the front side are spaces for recording 
iie usual personal data, including previous education, 
bade experience and special items in the case of foreign- 
|bra students. On the reverse side are spaces for recording 
lite work of eighteen classes under the following head- 
p; subject or class, classification of subject, date en- 
date left or finished, length of course in hours, 
r of sixty-minute periods attended, standing, 
and teacher. Data must be transferred to these 
office record cards from the pupils' class card 
in at the end of the term's work. 

Periodical Class Attendance Reports 

Some form of periodical report on the attendance of 
Vfpsses is essential. Time units may vary. Such a report 
be simple with only a very few spaces for entering 
It may be more detailed if it is to be used for sev- 
i purposes. The form illustrated in Figure 7 (page 81) 

^ *' "' f ''''"' 

,--;,,, ',""" '" <f t ,*, 

' '" ^-^Hffts-,.,:, 

Sheet-Metal Worker's Apprentices Learning Sheet-Metal Drawing 
(McKinley Night School, St. Louis) 

Heady for the Evening Class in Oxyacetylene Welding (Duluth) 


is quite elaborate. It provides an exact picture of the 
condition of a class at the end of each week. Some of the 
data recorded are transferred to a consolidated record 
sheet of all classes. 

This particular report (Figure 7) contains one item 
used only in the annual report. It is item 3, pupil-hours. 
The total number is desired at the close of the year as a 
unit of measure. There are other units of measure such 
as the pupil-year and pupil-class. The pupil-hour is the 
smallest measure and the most accurate because it has 
no variation. This measurement is taken to discover the 
growth or decline of the total instruction given in a year. 
However, its chief purpose is to determine the financial 
cost of instruction on a unit basis, so that increases or 
decreases may be noted (See item 7, Figure 7). The cost 
per pupil-hour is of course determined by dividing the 
cost of the evening instruction by the total number of 

Through the employment of a periodical report, such 
as is illustrated in Figure 7, the principal or evening 
school director may watch the growth, decline or steadi- 
ness of attendance of classes. He may determine approx- 
imately when pupils dropped out or entered. The drop- 
outs may number so many, for instance, that the average 
number in attendance may not warrant the continuation 
of the class. These reports may be the source of an in- 
quiry on the part of the administrator or supervisor into 
causes of drop-outs. A conference with the teacher may 
show that the decline in attendance was wholly unavoid- 
able. Such instances have been noted frequently. Pos- 
sibly in some cases, a suggestion regarding subject-matter, 
methods or pupil approach may bring better results. 


Cards sent to those who have dropped out may cause 
some to return. The teacher may be helped to discover 
for himself what the causes for drop-outs are. The chief 
educational value of the periodical report may be thought 
of as that of recording the "pulse" of classes. It forms one 
basis for discovering teachers who may need assistance. 
Inquiry reveals the fact that many systems follow the 
practice of considering a pupil as "dropped from the 
class" after three successive absences, that is, he is 
"dropped" on the fourth evening if not present. 

The periodical class attendance reports may be the 
source from which the pay-roll is compiled. The form 
illustrated in Figure 7 is five by five and one-half inches. 
A carbon copy is made and kept by the teacher and 
referred to (item 7) in making the report of the follow- 
ing week. 

Cumulative Term or Monthly Attendance Reports 

A cumulative monthly report of all classes serves much 
the same purpose for a school or an entire system that 
the periodical class reports do for individual classes. A 
study of the data for each class tells the story of the 
attendance status over a given period, as a month. It 
provides an even better source for judgments concerning 
class attendance than can be secured from class reports 
covering a briefer period of time. 

Figure 10 is a form used as a cumulative monthly 
attendance report. It is mimeographed, on eight and one- 
half by eleven inch paper. It might be printed. On this 
particular form three items are recorded each week for 
each class. Other items might be recorded likewise by 



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Oct. V 


Oct. 2 


Oct. 2 














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Mach.-Shop (Elem.) 













Show-Card Writing 













Auto Repair (1 Unit) 




















































Bus. Corres 













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Gar.-Mk U-Kightgowna . 













Gar-Mlc. Ill Undergarm. ... 













Plain Cooking I T 













Plain Cooking H 













Rill Mminery 













Art Craft for Women 













Art in Dress 













Begin. English 













Grade Arith ... 













Grade English 













Penmanship . * . ..... 


























Pub. Sp (1 unit) 













Everyday Law 













Phys, Ed (Men) 













Phys. Ed (Women) 













Swimming (Women) 













Elements of Elec 










Individuals enrolled to October 28 624 

Average attendance for October (by classes) 607 

Percentage attendance for October . , ... 02% 

Cumulative Monthly Attendance Report 


adding them under each week. The total enrolment of 
the class to date is first given. This is followed by the 
average weekly attendance, and then the percentage 
attendance. The second item gives the average attend- 
ance in numbers, at times essential when it nears a set 
minimum. The last item helps to picture the immediate 
condition of attendance because it takes into considera- 
tion the additions to the class in any week and likewise 
any drop-outs. 

It should be noted in connection with this chart and 
the weekly reports (Figure 7) that at the beginning of 
a class the average attendance may be less than the enrol- 
ment, and the percentage attendance still may be 100. 
This is because of additions to the class after its opening, 
all members enrolled being present. Garment-making I 
and II, art craft, grade arithmetic and everyday law are 
examples of this condition (Figure 10). 

It also may be noted how "dropping" pupils from those 
belonging to the class after three successive absences 
raises the percentage attendance. Plan-reading, garment- 
making III, beginning English, and penmanship are ex- 
amples (Figure 10). 

A class may also continue to have a fair or minimum 
average attendance, but only because of continued new 
recruits to take the places of those who have dropped out. 
It should be apparent that total enrolment, average at- 
tendance and percentage attendance are all important 
factors in securing a true picture of an evening school 

Such an attendance report may form the attendance 
section of a more formal monthly report to the super- 
intendent and board of education. 


When a cumulative report of this kind records facts in 
time units of one week, it sometimes happens that the 
end of the week and the end of the month do not coincide. 
This difficulty can be overcome by recording for any 
month the weeks which end in that month. 

One difficulty which is hard to overcome is to secure 
the average attendance in individuals by schools, when 
some of them attend more than one class each evening. 
The total average attendance recorded on the above form 
is by classes, because some pupils are in two classes. It 
should be pointed out also that the percentage attendance 
here recorded is taken from the weekly reports (Figure 
7). The percentage is arrived at, it will be noted, on the 
basis of those "belonging to the class" at the end of each 
week and not upon the initial or total enrolment of pupils 
in the class. 

In the procedure of "dropping" pupils after repeated 
absences, the evening school follows the practice of day- 
schools in similar situations. In many classes this factor 
scarcely enters into the computations. In other classes, 
however, it may be a glaring condition, in need of imme- 
diate attention and careful future planning. 

Monthly Reports to ^Superintendent 

A monthly report of evening school education is of 
equal importance with other monthly school reports to 
the superintendent. There may be no standardized form 
on which to enter data as there frequently is for day- 
schools. This condition is an advantage, for it provides 
an opportunity for noting the developments, conduct and 
progress of the instruction in essay form. This is often 


desirable with educational activities which are new, rela- 
tively speaking. 

It has been noted that a cumulative monthly report of 
attendance may form a part of a more comprehensive 
monthly report to the superintendent. Other items which 
may be recorded in monthly reports are: the results of 
experiments with classes, subject-matter or methods; the 
beginning and ending of short units of instruction; com- 
ments on exceptional work or attendance of specific 
classes; the visits, comments and suggestions of State 
supervisors; requests for and suggestions concerning 
equipment and buildings; financial records; and any un- 
usual factors entering into the ordinary conduct of the 
evening schools of which the superintendent and school- 
board should be aware and which should be recorded 

Monthly reports to the superintendent are of value to 
the administrator of evening schools. They are of value 
to the superintendent and the board of education. If for 
no other reason whatever, they are of value in keeping 
before the ultimate school authorities the fact that even- 
ing education is a vital and a live unit of the public school 
system. Monthly reports are also of value to the growing 
institution of evening schools, in helping to center atten- 
tion and interest of both the school authorities and the 
general public (through the press) on their possibilities, 
accomplishments and importance in the field of adult edu- 

Certification of Teachers 

The making of reports on the qualifications of teachers 
is another form of routine work required of most evening 


school administrators. Certification of teachers becomes 
increasingly important as specific types of evening in- 
struction are recognized and aided by the State, or by 
both the State and federal governments. State recogni- 
tion and subsequent special aid immediately involve the 
establishment of standards regarding teachers as well as 
buildings, hours and courses of study. Special aid and 
standards are treated extensively in Chapter XII. 

Among the more commonly requested items on reports 
concerning the certification of teachers are the following: 
name of teacher, kind of teaching certificate held, date of 
expiration of certificate, subjects taught in evening school, 
years of experience in teaching in evening school, salary 
(for some time unit), building in which teacher teaches 
and schools attended, together with locations, years, kinds 
of courses and diplomas. In the certification of various 
types of vocational teachers, data of another type are 
usually desired, such as: teaching experience, vocational 
experience, present occupation, special preparation for 
teaching evening vocational classes and the request for 
certification to teach specifically named subjects, usually 
those classified as vocational. 

The certification of teachers is usually done through 
the administrator's office, though the teachers, of course, 
supply data requested. Various devices are possible which 
make the filling-in of these reports accurate, and require 
a minimum amount of work for the principal or director. 
Unified groups of teachers may be brought together and 
the applications for certificates for all of them made out 
at one time. Interpretations of questions can be made for 
all if necessary. Frequently applications must be made in 


State Reports of Classes 

Two reports are commonly demanded of classes for 
which State recognition and frequently resulting aid are 
requested. A preliminary report is at times considered as 
an application for aid for proposed classes. It also serves 
as a basis for subsequent inspection by State supervisors. 
Among the items of information commonly asked for of 
each class are the following: name of class ; dates of open- 
ing and closing, length of course, evenings on which the 
class meets, hours the class is in session, building in which 
it meets and instructor's name and salary. 

A final report of each class for which recognition and 
aid are requested is always required. This may take the 
form of one sheet for each class, or classes of one type 
may be grouped. Among commonly requested items the 
following appear: class or subject, classification of class, 
length of course (hours, weeks, years), time this year, 
sessions per week, days of week, hours during which class 
meets, minutes per session, dates of first and last lessons, 
enrolment (male and female), average attendance, per- 
centage attendance, personnel of group, fees or tuition 
charged, attendance in pupil-hours, building, texts used, 
names of teachers, number of teachers, teaching experi- 
ence of teachers, kind of certificate held and salary paid 
for the course. In the case of federally aided classes, trade 
or special experience or training may be asked for, and 
the age of all the pupils. 

It is evident from the above list of items requiring the 
entering of data that much of the administrator's time 
may be saved if the routine report forms he plans and 


uses are such that cumulative data may be secured from 
them rapidly when it is needed for State reports. The 
evening school administrator should know what data are 
required of him in reports before he plans his forms. 

Federal reports on Americanization classes are usually 
requested. No reimbursement is dependent upon them, 
but it is certainly proper to cooperate with the Bureau 
of Naturalization in its efforts to measure this type of 

Citizenship Records 

Attention already has been directed to the recording of 
data on the citizenship status of pupils on enrolment 
blanks. In small communities, evening school adminis- 
trators may offer courses in English and citizenship, 
arrange for examinations by an official of the Bureau of 
Naturalization, and feel and know that their responsi- 
bilities have been fairly well met. In large cities, where 
greater numbers apply for citizenship, more extensive and 
accurate records of courses pursued and of the natural- 
ization status of individuals are desirable. Minneapolis, 
for instance, keeps a complete record of citizenship status 
of all of its foreign-born evening pupils on special cards. 
There is also a citizenship cross-file card which contains 
references to various files. In addition to these two there 
is an office census card of the pupil which contains de- 
sired data. 

Library Records 

Texts and reference books used in evening schools need 
to be as accurately accounted for as they do in day- 
schools. Frequently the book forms used for day-schools 


may be used for evening schools. Duplicate charge slips 
are commonly used when teachers withdraw a number of 
books from a textbook library. Similar duplicate credit 
slips are made out upon the return of the books. In both 
cases the custodian keeps one copy and the teacher re- 
ceives the other. 

When teachers issue textbooks to pupils, a common 
method of recording them is to make out receipts to the 
pupils, naming the book loaned, the date, and the amount 
deposited for it. This sum is returned when the book and 
receipt are returned to the teacher. 

One evening school enrolment blank has on its reverse 
side a book account which provides spaces for all book 
transactions between the evening school and the pupils. 

If pupils are permitted to draw reference books from 
school libraries, a method should be provided which will 
insure the school against loss in case of non-return. 

Requisitions for Supplies 

If a considerable variety of supplies is needed by 
teachers, the request for these, together with the neces- 
sary data on the disposition of the requests, should be 
adequately recorded. The same form of requisition as is 
used in day-schools may serve the purpose very well. 


A special form for pay-rolls for evening schools is often 
desirable because of irregularities of days, hours and 
salary basis. An eight and one-half by eleven inch form 
which has proved satisfactory has at the top of the page 


spaces for the year, time unit covered and school. Fol- 
lowing the spaces for the instructors' names are addi- 
tional ones for number of evenings (or hours), number 
of hours per evening, rate per evening (or hour), total 
salary and remarks. 

Attendance Chart 

A device which has proved interesting and effective is 
an attendance chart. On it is recorded each week the 
percentage of attendance of each class. It is hung inside 
the front entrance of the building where all or nearly all 
will pass and see it. Such a chart is illustrated in Figure 
11. This one is twenty-five by thirty inches. Some which 
were larger and some which were smaller have also been 
used. Data for such a chart can be secured readily from 
weekly reports to the principal if there are such (Figure 
7). It is not difficult to obtain such data for one building 
under any circumstances. 

In the chart illustrated, percentages of ninety or above 
were recorded with red pencil, and those below ninety in 
green. The green marks show up light in the illustration 
and the red ones appear dark. The chart is ruled in pencil. 

Such a chart is quite an accurate picture of the attend- 
ance by classes and by weeks. The data recorded thereon 
are in such form that they may be used readily by ad- 
ministrators in making monthly or other reports to the 
superintendent and final State reports. 

The degree of variability of percentage of attendance 
for any class frequently indicates something of the char- 
acter of the instruction as well as of the attendance. The 
succeeding weekly percentages for each class may tell a 















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GAR:M'K'6.l(3 p MtTJ 








MRM&m o UM) 











































Attendance Chart 


story of constant attendance of a large number, variable 
attendance of a considerable number of increasing or 
decreasing regularity of attendance. An increase for one 
week in a class of markedly low or variable percentage 
usually indicates that a number of members have been 
dropped from those belonging to the class, and the per- 
centage has accordingly risen. 

The average attendance of all classes recorded at the 
bottom of the chart, is likewise of interest. In the fifth 
week, for example, the fact that a general election came 
on one of two evenings of school affected the attendance. 
In the sixth week an Armistice Day celebration did like- 
wise. The evening operation of stores before Christinas 
is reflected in the eleventh and twelfth weeks, particu- 
larly in commercial and related classes. Such an attend- 
ance condition should be avoided whenever possible. 

The chief purpose of this chart, however, is not to 
assist the teachers in making a diagnosis of class attend- 
ance. It is to stimulate interest in attendance. This ap- 
plies equally well to pupils and teachers. Pupils gather 
about the chart and discuss the records of their own and 
other classes. The smudged figures and finger marks on 
these charts are mute reminders of interested students. 
Teachers watch the charts, discuss attendance with their 
classes in a spirit of rivalry and are quick to report the 
slightest inaccuracy. Such a chart is unquestionably an 
effective device for stimulating attendance. The use of 
some such device is urged. 

The question of rivalry between classes has at times 
been carried a step further by posting the names of lead- 
ing classes, by reporting such to the press and by offering 
and giving little prizes to the members of a winning class. 


Certificates and Diplomas 

Evening school officials are responsible for the issuing 
of certificates and diplomas. When elementary school or 
high school work has been completed, diplomas must be 
prepared. Certificates in much greater numbers are de- 
sired by many who pursue studies in a single class or 
series of short-unit classes. Such certificates are particu- 
larly desired by pupils in commercial and industrial 
classes, and in elementary grade subjects when the pupils 
are not working for a diploma. They are often desired for 
presentation as evidence of evening school attendance in 
specific classes. Certificates should be granted to all who 
desire them. 

Blank certificates can be signed by school officials and 
handed to teachers to complete and sign on the last even- 
ing of school. They may also be filled in after classes have 
completed their work. Pupils should bring self-addressed 
stamped envelopes for this purpose. 

Certificates should be of a size that can be inserted in 
commonly used stamped envelopes. The one illustrated 
in Figure 12 is five by six inches. It should provide for an 
adequate description or picture of a pupil's work and 
attendance in a specified subject. 

Administrator's Annual Report 

The one responsible for evening school education 
should make an annual report to the superintendent. Any 
school activity supported by taxation should be accounted 
for. If the report is carefully thought out, it can also, 




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through publicity, be made the vehicle for indirect adver- 
tising of evening schools and their offerings and potential 


Records and reports and the forms used for them are 
closely related. The importance of proper planning of 
forms to supply the data desired in records and reports 
has been noted. In large cities with numerous centers, 
diversity of offerings, and varied class schedules, the 
evening school organization can be held together and 
effectively operated only through a unified system of 
forms. Referring again to Minneapolis, we find sixteen 
forms used in evening school work, designated as follows: 
census card, class card, receipt for fee, teacher's monthly 
report to principal, elementary certificate, principal's 
monthly report, financial report, principal's term report, 
teacher's register, teachers' monthly pay-roll, general 
requisition, non-attendance inquiry, absence inquiry, 
transfer notice, report card and teacher's class book. 

The reader is referred to Appendix B for additional 
forms used in records and reports. 


1. Explain the value of following the procedure of first de- 
termining the nature of the data desired or demanded, 
and then constructing forms which when filled in will 
give the required information. 

2. What are some of the important factors of attendance 
which a cumulative monthly report should provide for 
the director of evening schools? 


3. Plan a form for an office registration blank, with space 
for recording an enrolment fee. 

4. Plan an accompanying program card to serve also as an 
admittance to class and as the form on which attendance 
and grading are recorded. 

5. Plan a permanent evening school record card to which 
pertinent data are transcribed from the above registra- 
tion card and the program-attendance-grading card. 


Appendix B. 

Brown, Glen D., "The Evening School Program Its Promo- 
tion and Maintenance," Industrial Arts Magazine (Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, November, 1927). 
Sets of evening school forms used in cities where evening 

instruction has been extensively developed, together with any 

available printed or mimeographed instructions for their use. 



In spite of examples to the contrary, evening schools 
are relatively new as an educational activity. They are 
generally no older than the modern movement for adult 
education, evidenced in several major educational activi- 
ties. Evening schools are, as may be expected, still in a 
state of experimentation. Notable advances have been 
made in subject-matter, methods, and organization, but 
there is still much to be discovered, even in the most 
highly developed individual institutions. 

Each new evening school which is inaugurated means 
additional experimentation if it is to be successful, even 
though it may benefit by the discoveries and successes of 
others. This factor is inherent in the very nature of even- 
ing instruction, which is to meet the specifically recog- 
nized needs of individuals, groups and communities. 

Evening schools, even when effectively administered 
and taught, must change their offerings and sometimes 
their methods to meet new and changing demands. They 
must feel the pulses of adult educational needs of the 
communities they serve and respond to them. This means 
almost constant reorganization. Such an educational pro- 
cedure or conception of organization was quite foreign to 
American education up to a decade ago. However, we 
now have the examples of part-time training and other 



forms of industrial, agricultural, commercial and home- 
making education to show us a path. These branches have 
broken away courageously from traditional forms in order 
to meet new and frequently changing demands. 1 Such a 
conception and organization of evening schools make 
them quickly responsive to needs. 

May it not be hoped that such changes in demands will 
never cease? They add new problems and perplexities 
continually, it is true, but they also oblige those respon- 
sible to be continually alert, alive, observant, and con- 
stantly studying. Such a condition assures growth and 
virility in many ways in this form of educational en- 
deavor, and insures against stagnation and complacent 
assurance, which are foreign to development. 

Development Based upon Concrete Factors 

While there is much that is experimental in the con- 
tinued development of evening school education, there 
are concrete factors which may assist greatly in arriving 
at new conclusions. These factors may be made effective 
guides in further experiment and educational develop- 
ment. They may be used as guide-posts to future develop- 
ment. Among them are included various class records and 
reports; surveys of pupils' educational desires and previ- 
ous preparation; requests for classes by individuals and 
groups; administrators' observations of pupils, teachers 
and classes; information secured through talks to teach- 
ers and pupils; comments and remarks of pupils; obser- 
vations of changing occupational needs of a community; 

*The tenets held by progressive and reactionary educators with re- 
gard to adult education are balanced against each other in the Com- 
mittee Report, Appendix A, pp. 310-314. 


and recorded results of previous successful and unsuccess- 
ful evening school offerings, teachers and methods. 

Values of an Annual Evening School Report 

A comprehensive annual report of evening school edu- 
cation serves two valuable purposes. It summarizes and 
records the work of the year ending, and if compiled with 
that thought in mind it may serve as an excellent guide 
in assisting in the planning of the work for the following 
year. Comparison of the current year with past years adds 
to its value as an indicator of future efforts. Preliminary 
plans, at least, for the ensuing year should be made while 
the results of the current year are still fresh in mind. 

The main divisions of the following annual evening 
school report are: general statements, measurable prog- 
ress, statistical comparison of three-year period table of 
class records, results of pupil survey, financial statement, 
^proposed program for ensuing year and summary of 
recommendations. This report is included here so that it 
may be referred to in part in connection with discussions 
of various active agencies which may influence the future 
growth, development and efficiency of evening education. 


"To the Superintendent and Board of Education: 

"The 1926-1927 Evening School, which was in operation 
eighteen weeks (Oct. 5, 1926 to Feb. 18, 1927), was the largest 
thus far in point of view of attendance. There were 664 en- 
rolled in one, two or three courses, varying in length from five 
to eighteen weeks. The information and data below will pic- 
ture the physical growth. Certain items, which will be pointed 


out, will indicate the instructional advancement through high 
attendance records. These are an accurate barometer of how 
effectively the instruction is meeting the needs of the local 
community, for it should be borne in mind that attendance is 
purely voluntary. In order to take advantage of the Evening 
School a few pupils drove from surrounding farms and the fol- 
lowing communities: Sauk Rapids, Sartell, Rice, Ronneby, 
Waite Park; Rockville, Cold Spring and St. Joseph. 

"Continued efforts were made this year to achieve more 
nearly the standards of attendance, punctuality and concen- 
tration of effort that obtain in day-school instruction. There 
are many evidences that this goal was more nearly approached 
than ever before. 

"The extremely cold weather of November, December and 
January, as compared with that of the past three or four 
years, prevented the attendance records from being raised. 
Five holidays or days of special significance falling on Eve- 
ning School nights proved to be further distractions. In spite 
of these handicaps the percentage of attendance for all classes 
remained the same as for last year, the previous high record, 
87 per cent. 


"I. A study of Table I following will reveal many items of 
advancement in the Evening School during the past three 
years. Several items should be interpreted as being of special 
significance. It has been the policy of the school during these 
years to break up long classes into a number of short ones 
with very specific limits and content. The wisdom of this is 
now evident. Item 3 shows the increase in the number of classes 
offered, item 2 the increased enrolment by classes, and items 
18 and 19 the increase in the number of short-unit classes and 
decrease in the number of long classes. As a result of this, 
items 12 and 13 show a great increase in the numbers who 
have been in attendance more than 90 per cent of the time and 
those whose records are 100 per cent. Item 14 (number of 
classes having 90 per cent attendance records) undoubtedly 


would have been increased from 13 to 17 or 18 had we not 
been experimenting with a number of new short classes ^ and 
employing some new teachers. For the same reason, in item 
15, the percentage of attendance of short classes would have 
been raised from 89.4 per cent to approximately 91.5 per cent. 
Taking into consideration the adverse conditions of this year, 
in making comparisons with former years, there can be but 
one conclusion namely, that short units of work in evening 
schools are a decided advantage and should be extended to 
as many classes as is feasible. 

"IL With an increased instructional expenditure of $154 
or 4 per cent over the previous year, the increased individual 
enrolment of 18 was provided for. Enrolment by classes in- 
creased from 855 to 998, number of classes increased from 33 
to 42, lessons taught from 720 to 786, total length of opera- 
tion from 16 to 18 weeks, pupil-hours of instruction from 20,- 
269 to 24,447, with a consequent decrease in the corresponding 
cost per pupil-hour of instruction from $.19 to $.16 1/8. 

"Justifiable pride is taken in the above figures, which in- 
dicate the efficacy of the instruction offered by the teachers, 
the measured value of short-unit courses and efficiency in 
organizing the classes desired and making such adjustments 
in them from time to time as seem desirable or needed. 

"III. This year the enrolment date was moved ahead one 
week, and twelve weeks of work were completed before the 
Christmas holidays. All possible classes were put into opera- 
tion during this period. The result is evidenced particularly 
in the average attendance by classes in the first two months 
(item 11). It has been proved to the satisfaction of the prin- 
cipal that the policy of having as much work as possible be- 
fore Christmas is a good one for a city as far north as St. 

"IV. For several years we have pursued a policy of having 
two enrolment nights before school began. This made possible 
some educational guidance for those who wished to take ad- 
vantage of it. In this respect it has been successful. It has 
been, however, a rather slow process and has caused a break 


between enrolment and the first class work. It was thought 
that enrolment on the first night of work, by the class teachers, 
might now be possible in St. Cloud, because of the large num- 
bers who come more than one year, and because of wide- 
spread common knowledge about the evening courses. The 
plan was tried this year. Those wishing advice about courses 
got it from the teachers who had been instructed in giving it, 
or from the principal and an assistant employed for that pur- 
pose. The change worked very well. The pupils enrolled and 
went to work the same night. A considerable financial saving 
was also effected. 

"That adult education is in demand in St. Cloud there can 
be no doubt from a study of the above facts, In this the city 
does not differ, except possibly in degree, from other cities 
all over the United States and England. That we have but 
scratched the surface of the desires of our citizens is indi- 
cated by the variety of classes desired as shown in the survey 
of pupils' wishes taken December 16 (Table III). 


"1. The program just outlined, if all classes were formed, 
would result in an instructional cost of $4,145, or $139 more 
than this year. However, judging from past experiences, there 
is little or no likelihood that every course offered will find suffi- 
cient pupils to warrant organization. In fact, I confidently be- 
lieve that several courses could be organized later in the term 
in instances where they have been omitted in this proposed 
program. We have always planned to advertise more classes 
at the beginning of the year than the budget would permit. 
It is difficult to advertise and organize desired classes after 
school has begun and it becomes evident that funds are avail- 
able through the non-formation of some classes. 

"2. It is not planned to use the Junior High School Build- 
ing except in an unlooked-for emergency, though the use of 
that building for three or four classes would be most desirable. 

"3. Art Handcraft for Women is to be offered again for 



"Comparison of Numbers of Students, Costs, etc., 1924-1925, 1925-1926, 
*^ 1926-1927 

Items 1924-1925 1925-1926 1926-1927 

Enrolment 1926-1927 

Men 16 to 21 years SO 

over 21 years 218 

298 285 298 

Women 16 to 21 years 107 

over 21 years 259 

366 361 366 

1. Total enrolment 552 646 664 

2. Student enrolment by classes 711 855 998 

3. N umber of classes or units of work.. 32 33 42 

4. Number of lessons taught 625 720 786 

5 Pupil-hours of instruction 16,573 20,269 24,447 

6! Instructional and administrative cost $3,423 $3,852 $4,006 


PUPIL-HOUR $.20% $.19 $.16% 

8. Nights per week 2 2 2 

9, Period of operation (weeks) ... 16 16 18 

10. Attendance required for return of 

enrolment fee 90% 90% 90% 

11. Class attendance by months: 

First 424 561 607 

Second 360 488 492 

Third 323 427 383 

Fourth 224 220 186 

Fifth 175 196 167 

12. Number of individuals having 90 per 

cent or more attendance, by classes 279 365 442 

13. Number of individuals having 100 per 

cent attendance, by classes 101 145 236 

14. Number of classes having more than 

90 per cent attendance 11 12 13 

15. Per cent of attendance of short units 

or classes (mostly 6 and not over 

9 weeks) 89 91 89.4 

16. Per cent of attendance of long units 

or classes (mostly from 11 to 18 

weeks) 83 85 84 

17. Per cent of attendance of all units or 

classes 86 87 87 

18. Number of short units or classes 12 '11 26 

19. Number of long units or classes 20 22 16 


"Class Records, 1926-1927 

Number of Number Per Cent of 

Class Lessons Enrolled Attendance 

Monumental Lettering 24 30 81 

Machine Shop I 18 15 84 

Show-Card Writing 22 15 86 

Automotive Repair 18 22 90 

Plan-Reading (Builders) 12 13 88 

Bookkeeping 36 52 80 

Typewriting 24 89 86 

Business Correspondence 24 38 85 

Garment-Making I (first unit) 12 18 94 

Garment-Making II (first unit) 12 17 89 

Garment-Making III (first unit) 12 20 97 

Plain Cooking Section I 12 18 92 

Plain Cooking Section II 12 13 95 

Fall Millinery 12 17 97 

Art Handcraft for Women 24 39 92 

Art in Dress 12 20 86 

Beginning English (Foreigners) 36 28 89 

Grade Arithmetic 36 15 82 

Grade English 24 11 87 

Penmanship 36 14 79 

Spelling 36 23 82 

Public Speaking 12 18 80 

Everyday Law and Business Practice 24 45 89 

Physical Education Men 36 58 75 

Physical Education Women 36 71 89 

Swimming Women 30 31 83 

Elements of Electricity 1 12 32 83 

Elements of Electricity II 10 18 79 

Garment-Making I (second unit) 12 18 96 

Garment-Making II (second unit) 12 15 83 

Garment-Making III (second unit) 12 20 95 

Meal-PlanningSection I 12 15 89 

Meal-PlanningSection II . 12 12 98 

Millinery Winter and Spring 12 8 82 

Building Estimating 12 14 75 

Home-Planning and Furnishing, Women 10 9 81 

Machine Shop II 18 15 93 

Unusual Cooking 12 16 99 

Garment-Making I (third unit) 12 12 89 

Garment-Making II (third unit) 12 13 87 

Garment-Making III (third unit) 12 20 95 

Monumental Estimating 12 11 87 

Totd 786 998 87 




"Results of a Survey of Evening School Pupils Taken December 16 
(Not all pupils volunteered the information asked for) 

Years pupils have been in the Evening School : 

One Year ,. 
Two Years . 
Three Years 
Four Years , 
Five Years . 
Seven Years 

173 or 61.5% of those supplying data 

68 or 24.2% of those supplying data 

25 or 9 % of those supplying data 

9 or 3.2% of those supplying data 

5 or 1.7% of those supplying data 

1 or .4% of those supplying data 

The following subjects were 
Evening School next year: 

Gymnasium (Women) 

Grade English 

Art Craft for Women 



Bookkeeping . , . , 

Monumental Design 



Show-Card Writing 


Gymnasium (Men) 

Garment- Making II 

Garment-Making I 


Public Speaking 



Plain Cooking 

Everyday Law 

Auto Repair 

Building Estimating Plan 



Beauty Culture 

listed as being those desired in the 

. 9 
. 9 
. 6 
. 6 
. 5 
. 5 
. 4 
. 4 
. 4 
. 3 

. 3 
. 3 
. 3 

French 2 

Garment-Making III 2 

Accountancy 2 

Radio 2 

Electric Welding 2 

Carpentry Woodwork 2 

Chemistry 2 

Advanced Typewriting 2 

Business Correspondence 2 

Unusual Cooking 2 

Home Decoration 

Piano Music , 

Calculating (Burroughs) 

English (High School) . , 
Parliamentary Law 
Architectural Drawing 

Penmanship 1 

Business Management 

Civil Service 


Auto Repair (Women) 


Swimming (Men) 





Budget Used Balance 

For instruction and administration.. $4,000.00 $4,006.00 $ 6.00 deficit 
For supplies and advertising 100.00 149.69 49.69 deficit 


The Board should be reimbursed from State and federal funds ap- 
proximately as follows: 

For 7 trade classes (Smith-Hughes) $331.00 

For 18 home-making classes (Smith-Hughes) 532.50 

For 4 non-vocational classes (state aid) 135.00 * 

Total ................................... $998.50 

*This item may be prorated slightly. 

Enrolment fees were $1 ($2 for late enrolment. No fee for Ameri- 
canization Classes). 

Total amount of fees unredeemed by 90 per cent attendance $414.00 
Check for $414.00 accompanies this report. 


The actual total cost of this year's Evening School to this district 
(less light and extra heat) is: 

Salaries, supplies and advertising ........................ $4,155.69 

Less State and federal reimbursement ............ $ 998.50 

Less unredeemed enrolment fees .................. 414.00 

$1,412.50 1,412.50 
Actual cost of Evening School to the district ............. $2,743.19 

The following program is proposed for 1927-1928. It is based upon 
the experiences of this and past years, and to some extent upon the 
requests for classes for next year, as indicated by the survey of Decem- 
ber 16; and upon the estimate of the superintendent that the salary 
item in the budget would be $4,000. 




Teacher Cost 

Monumental Lettering Exploratory aoo 

Courge ........... t ......... 2 weeks $32.00 

Monument&i* Lettering * ! ! ". .......... 10 weeks 160.00 

Machine-Shop (3 units) ........... J2 weeks 180-00 

Show-Card Writing ............... 10 weeks 100.00 

Plan-Reading (Builders) ....... .... 6 weeks 60-00 

Building Estimating ............... 6 weeks 60.00 

Mathematics of Electricity ......... ^eks 60.00 

Direct-Current Machinery ......... 6 weeks 60.00 

Alternating-Current Machinery .... 6 weeks 60.00 

Radio Construction ............... 12 weeks 120.00 

Bookkeeninc .......... 18 weeks 180.00 

SSS; /""/.'."..I". ......... 2 cla*es-IO weeks 100.00 

Business Correspondence .......... 1 bour -10 weeks 50.00 

Advertising ................... 1 h ur 1D weeks ^^ 

Everyday Law' and Business Practice 10 weeks 100.00 

Beginning Shorthand ............. 1 Hour -18 weeks 90.00 

Garment-Making I (3 units) ....... 18 weeks 180.00 

Garment-Making II (3 units) ...... 18 weeks 180.00 

Tailoring (3 units) ............. ... If *eeks 180.00 

Fall and Winter Millinery ......... 6 weeks 60.00 

Cooking (3 units) ........ . ........ 18 weeks 180.00 

Art Handcraft (Women) ...... ..... 10 weeks 100.00 

HoBie-Planning .................... 6 weeks 60.00 

Art in Dress .......... ...... ....... 6 weeks 60.00 

Citizenship ........................ 12 weeks 120.00 

Beginning English (foreigners) ..... 18 weeks 180,00 

Grade School English ..... ......... 1 hour 18 weeks 90.00 

Grade School Arithmetic ........... 1 hour 18 weeks 90.00 

Penmanship and Spelling .......... 1 hour 18 weeks 90.00 

English I, II (High School) ....... 18 weeks 180.00 

German I (High School) . ._ ......... 18 weeks 180.00 

Current Social and Economic 

Problems (Women) ............. 12 weeks 120.00 

Physical Education Men .......... 12 weeks 120.00 

Physical EducationWomen ....... 12 weeks 144.00 

Enrolment ........................ 15.00 

Principal .......................... 18 weeks 

and organization 

work before and 

reportsafterschool 300.00 

Secretary ....... . .................. 18 weeks 54.00 

Total ........ . ........... . $4145.00 


two reasons: first, because it takes care of many women who 
would otherwise overcrowd sewing classes, and second, be- 
cause of its popularity this year. Other new classes, for which 
there is housing facility, are also planned, which it is be- 
lieved will attract women from the cooking classes. It is also 
planned to attract some pupils from typewriting by adding 
shorthand and advertising. 

"4. From the survey taken on December 16, it is evident 
that courses of more advanced standing in some subjects 
should be given, or broader offerings provided. Steps in these 
directions are provided for in the proposed program for next 
year in the following groups: trade, home-making, commer- 
cial, and high school academic courses. 

"5. Special attention should be called to the publicity given 
to the high school offerings. 

"6. The amount provided for publicity and supplies ($100) 
has not proved sufficient in the last three or four years to keep 
the advertising material on its original high plane. This item 
should be increased to $150. 

"7. On the basis of success achieved in short-unit courses 
this year and in past years, it is provided that this plan 
be extended to additional classes next year. 

"8. The following classes will be dropped next year with 
the possibility of their being organized if funds become avail- 
able through the non-organization of some of the classes pro- 
posed: Monumental Estimating, Automotive Repair, Garment- 
Making III, Public Speaking and one cooking class. 

"9. The following classes will be curtailed in the length of 
their courses: Typewriting from 12 to 10 weeks, Business 
Correspondence from 12 to 10 weeks, Everyday Law and Busi- 
ness Practice 12 to 10 weeks, Millinery 12 to 6 weeks, Art 
Handcraft for Women 12 to 10 weeks, Physical Education 
(both men and women) 18 weeks to 12 weeks. The commer- 
cial classes are all reduced slightly because of the difficulty 
students have in attending during the week or two before 
Christmas when business establishments are open nights. 

"10. The following new classes will be established for rea- 


sons outlined In 5 above: Mathematics of Electricity, 6 weeks; 
Direct-Current Machinery, 6 weeks; Alternating-Current Ma- 
chinery, 6 weeks; Advertising, 10 weeks; Beginning Shorthand 
18 weeks; Tailoring (3 units), 18 weeks; English I and II 
(High School), 18 weeks; German 1, 18 weeks ^Current Social 
and Economic Problems (women), 12 weeks." 

Active Agencies Influencing Evening 
School Development 

Establishing new classes. A growing and progressing 
evening school will wish to offer new courses in varying 
numbers. These classes will be efforts to meet well-defined 
needs, or attempts to discover such needs. That such offer- 
ings should be most logically and successfully planned is 
important. If classes are requested by organized or well- 
defined groups, the choices of subject-matter, methods 
and teacher may not be extremely difficult problems. The 
writer has had requests for specific classes from State 
reformatory guards and officials, post-office clerks and 
office employees of a public service corporation. Such 
groups make excellent nucleuses for classes. As schools 
become established and a fixed policy of organizing classes 
becomes known, this procedure is an excellent one in help- 
ing officials to determine upon new ones. 

Experiments and experiences with somewhat similar 
previous classes may also be of great assistance. A study 
of the two units of the class in Elements of Electricity 
(Figure 11) will indicate that it was not a great success 
so far as holding power on pupils was concerned. The two 
units of this class were planned as an experiment in an 
industrial field hitherto untouched locally. Out of them 
grew a far more logical plan for courses based upon the 


experience gained. In the "Summary of Recommenda- 
tions," pages 144, 149-150, the result of these experiments 
will be found in plans for three short units in Mathe- 
matics of Electricity, Direct-Current Machinery, and 
Alternating-Current Machinery. 

In a manner similar to the above it was determined to 
offer a four-night exploratory course preliminary to a 
Monumental Lettering and Design class. The latter class 
was a well-established one, but because of its nature it 
had lost a considerable number of the new pupils each 
year shortly after it was begun. The short exploratory 
course was a survey of what the regular class would cover. 
Those who desired to do so could drop out or transfer to 
another class at the close of the four lessons if they so 

A device which may produce valuable information rela- 
tive to demands for new classes, and old classes also, is 
the pupil survey. Results must be questioned somewhat 
at times, however, because of immediate enthusiasm for 
a class in which a pupil is enrolled, because all pupils 
enrolled in evening courses may not be reached in one or 
two evenings at some period in the term and because new 
and unusual classes requested, with only a very few votes, 
might at the proper time draw a large enrolment. In- 
stances of this kind could be noted. 

New classes have at times been established for the sim- 
ple purpose of attracting pupils from other popular 
courses. The writer recalls that during two successive 
years the enrolment in garment-making classes in a given 
school was so great that emergency measures, unsatis- 
factory in character, were necessary. To overcome this 
condition a class in art craft for women was organized 


the following year. Thirty-nine enrolled in the new course 
and many were turned away. The overcrowding in gar- 
ment-making classes ended. The new class was so popular 
and held the interest and attendance so well that it be- 
came one of the established classes. 

Continuing established classes. Communities soon 
discover that certain courses are desired year after year. 
This may be because of particular industries, a large for- 
eign element in the population, an exceptional teacher, 
no other facilities for securing the instruction, well- 
organized courses or other factors which produce a con- 
stantly recurring demand from newly recruited pupils. 
The attendance records total attendance, average at- 
tendance, and percentage attendance tell a vivid story 
about an established class. These records in their entirety 
indicate whether the demand for a class is small or great; 
whether interest is steady, upheld to the end, or fluctuat- 
ing; and whether the demand is growing, declining or 
stationary through a period of several years. 

At times the continuance of established classes may 
depend upon the available teachers. A certain home- 
making course in tailoring was almost wholly dependent 
upon the personality and reputation of an evening school 
teacher of many years' service. A public speaking class, 
brought to a high pitch by one teacher, had to be dis- 
continued a year after he left because there was not an- 
other of his caliber to fill the position. A grade school 
arithmetic class, generally recognized as an established 
class, even though its enrolment was not great, experi- 
enced numerous starts and slumps in the hands of ele- 
mentary grade teachers. It was revived and firmly estab- 
lished when it was placed in the hands of a man from the 


manual arts department who had had considerable en- 
gineering and mathematical training. He knew how to 
approach adult pupils, and used excellent judgment in 
the selection of subject-matter and methods. The teacher 
is always of great, and at times of first, importance in a 
consideration of the question of the continuation of 
established classes. 

Dropping established classes. It may be just as essen- 
tial to the continued development of evening schools to 
discontinue established classes, at times, as it is to in- 
augurate new classes. Attention has already been directed 
toward the attendance records as a barometer of the 
interest in and demand for a class. Careful scrutiny 
should precede any changes. 

The matter of adequately trained teachers has also 
been referred to in the section on "Continuing established 
classes." Poor teaching or inability to find a competent 
teacher to fill the place of one who is no longer available 
may result in dropping a class just as the opposite would 
warrant its continuation. The dropping of a teacher be- 
cause of ineffective teaching may be an excellent oppor- 
tunity for dropping the class, and possibly reorganizing 
the subject-matter, giving it a new name, and securing a 
new teacher. 

A diminished need for a class may become apparent. 
Such a class should be discontinued and not allowed to 
die out. It is an unhealthy sign and creates a bad psycho- 
logical effect, and the funds for salary should be used for 
a class for which a greater demand exists. Lack of funds 
with which to meet the demands for new classes might 
hurry somewhat the process of dropping a class which is 


At times it is a good plan to omit an established class 
from the program of a school for a year solely for the 
psychological effect. A condition always to be avoided is 
one in which a pupil, a group of pupils or a community 
has received all the instruction in a subject it desires. 
The desire for instruction should never be allowed to be 
wholly satisfied. 

The dropping of a class, either temporarily or per- 
manently, may be a step which adds to the progress and 
future development of evening education in a commun- 
ity. Observations alone are not sufficient to warrant such 
action. Facts based on past records should be studied. 

Reducing unit costs, The reduction of unit costs 
not total costs is usually a sign of development to be 
expected as evening schools progress and grow from year 
to year. This is particularly true if there are material 
increases in enrolment. Large numbers of pupils can 
always be handled at a smaller unit cost than small num- 
bers. Overhead costs of light, heat and janitorial service 
are also open to scrutiny and careful checking. The great- 
est possible use always should be made of supplies and 
equipment. This does not mean excessive economy, for 
such in the end is usually not true economy. Adminis- 
trative and instructional costs will increase with the 
growth of the evening school or school system. The unit 
costs for each pupil should decline, however. 

The lowest possible unit should be established in arriv- 
ing at costs. The pupil-hour is sometimes used in other 
divisions of our educational system. It is particularly 
adapted to measuring unit costs in evening schools. It is 
small, does not vary and is easily computed and used as 
a measuring-stick. Lengths of courses and hours per ses- 


sion do and should vary if the organization is responsive 
to studied needs. These variations make a larger measur- 
ing unit illogical. See paragraph II of "Measurable Prog- 
ress/' page 142; and items 5, 6 and 7 of Table I, page 
144, in connection with unit costs, and the way they may 
be expected to decline in a growing organization. An 
evening school official should not fear the use of a finan- 
cial measuring-stick. 

Increasing regularity of attendance and punctuality. 
An excellent indication of internal development in an 
evening school organization is growth in regularity of 
attendance and punctuality. If the best results are to be 
accomplished, a high degree of excellence in these two 
factors is necessary. One cannot expect good results if 
laxity prevails. The voluntary nature of the attendance 
at evening school is at times in itself detrimental to 
punctuality and regularity of attendance. Positive efforts 
are usually necessary to bring about good conditions. It 
is a problem for both teachers and administrators. The 
ultimate goal of achievement is the standard set up for 
day-school pupils. This, however, must be attained 
through other means than some of those commonly 
employed in day-schools. 

A competent teacher who presents well-organized 
subject-matter by methods adapted to adults usually 
does not have a serious problem in regard to regularity 
of attendance. Interest is the entering wedge and hold- 
ing power. It applies to adults in evening classes just 
as it is now recognized as being a most essential if not 
the most essential factor in the teaching of junior high 
school pupils. In the case of evening education, it is the 
interest born through a knowledge and realization of 


the fact that the individual is securing instruction which 
he desires and knows will be of value to him. 

In addition to the pull exerted on pupils through 
teaching such as is above described, a device exists for 
reaching some who are lax and need reminding. This is 
a mailed notice of absence. The one illustrated below is 
printed on the back of a government post-card. It is self- 


My dear Mr 

We have missed you for consecutive meetings 

of the class in in the Evening School. 

This class was formed partly because you signified by 
your enrolment that you wished to take up this subject for 
study. The school authorities feel it is unfair to them and the 
teacher to drop out after a teacher has been employed. If you 
have not received instruction of benefit to you, I urge you to 
talk over your needs with me. 

Will you not be with us at the next meeting of the class 

on , ? 

Very truly yours, 
, Instructor. 

explanatory. It is intended primarily as a notice of con- 
tinued absence or irregularity of attendance. It is also 
intended to bring to the attention of the pupil the fact 
that he assumes some responsibility toward the teacher, 
class and school when he enrolls in a subject. Notice of 
absence, mailed or otherwise, helps in many instances, 
but is far from 100 per cent efficient. Such notices are, 
however, worth the time and slight ,cost expended. 

Two devices for stimulating regularity have worked 
weU under certain circumstances. A class in cooking, with 
an excellent teacher, good course of study and unusually 


fine spirit among the pupils was constantly held at an 
expectant pitch about what the next lesson would be. 
Pupils came each succeeding evening eager to discover 
what the lesson was about. 

Another teacher in a rather small grade-school mathe- 
matics class definitely asked who would be and who 
would not be present at the following lesson. A con- 
siderable part of the instruction was individual and the 
teacher took the position that, as such instruction de- 
manded considerable planning for each individual, he 
was entitled to know which individuals would be present. 
The pupils saw the fairness of his request and of his 
unwillingness to make plans for absent members. Under 
the conditions and circumstances named the device 
worked exceedingly well. Attendance records for the class 
were the best in several years. 

Punctuality is in most instances the direct result of 
good teaching. The teacher's example in this matter, a 
thorough understanding from the beginning of the course 
that classes will start and stop on time, and interesting 
subject-matter and methods of teaching all help to bring 
about a healthy condition in regard to punctuality. A 
device used with considerable success is to start a class 
lesson or demonstration, even if it is very short, promptly 
at the beginning of the session. A tardy entrance to class 
attracts attention to the individual, not so much desired 
by many adults as it sometimes is by pupils in secondary 
education. If the pupil is interested, he experiences the 
feeling that he personally has lost something by not 
being in class at the beginning of the lesson. 

Timing length of courses. Proper judgment con- 
cerning the length of courses often has much to do with 


their successful operation and final termination. A pre- 
vious discussion centered attention upon the psycho- 
logical effect on pupils of short-unit courses, definitely 
named and bounded in subject-matter. Their stimulation 
to effort and the feeling of accomplishment produced at 
the close of each are well worth the added work of ad- 
ministration. Note has also been made of the desirability 
of having as much of the instruction as possible before 
the Christmas holidays, especially in colder sections of 
the country. 

Hie length of some classes can be determined ulti- 
mately only by experiment. A class in everyday law and 
business practice was first planned for six weeks' length. 
In successive years it was changed to eight, ten, twelve 
and again to ten weeks, where it now stands. 

Two short-unit millinery classes followed each other 
for a total of fourteen weeks. It was apparent that this 
was too long. In order to have the units break at the 
same time as numerous other home-making classes, two 
units of six weeks each were tried. In this particular 
instance the total for the two was still apparently too 
long. The final arrangement was a reorganization and 
consolidation of the two units into one of six weeks. Prac- 
tically the same pupils had been enrolled in both units 
in the previous years in this particular instance. 

A number of commercial classes, along with all others, 
were at one time lengthened from ten to twelve weeks, 
previous to the Christmas holidays. This arrangement 
brought the close of the work just before Christmas. 
The attendance the last two weeks in these commercial 
classes was very poor, owing to the fact that many pupils 
worked in retail stores in the evening at this time. These 


classes were then arranged for a period of ten weeks, 
and closed before the remainder of the evening classes 
at the holiday season. 

The above examples are given to show how plans for 
the length of classes must at times be changed in the 
light of experience gained from records and observations. 
This is but another example of adapting the organization 
to the needs of the pupils. 

Dropping teachers. At times it may become neces- 
sary in the interest of evening school development to 
drop teachers. This might be at the close of a first class 
or unit in the case of a teacher just employed or on pro- 
bation, or at the end of the evening school year (through 
non-employment the following year). This action may 
be difficult at times if the teacher is a member of the 
day-school faculty or a well-established citizen of the 
community. Sentiment in such cases, however, should 
play no part if the growth and success of the school is 
placed in jeopardy. 

Lack of ability to hold and successfully teach a class 
is of course the chief reason for dropping or not reem- 
ploying teachers. As common among the more specific 
causes the following might be named: requirement of 
more strength than an individual has for both day and 
evening work; inability of teacher to get to the pupils' 
level with the instruction; teacher assuming a superior 
personal attitude; other outside interests; teacher not 
aggressive enough; and inability to teach a subject 
though a master of' it (particularly in commercial, indus- 
trial and home-making subjects). The writer could cite 
numerous instances wherein each of the above-mentioned 
factors prevented the accomplishment of successful in- 


struetion, and resulted in the future non-employment 
of the teachers in question, 

Securing new teachers. The employment of new 
teachers for both established and new classes is essential 
to the future internal development of evening schools. 
AH of those factors just enumerated as being specific 
causes for unsuccessful teaching should be guarded 
against as much as they can be in the selection of new 
teachers. Search should be made for individuals who 
exhibit characteristics which are directly opposite to 
those named. 

The best person in the community for evening school 
teaching should be secured, irrespective of whether that 
person comes from the day faculty of the schools, a 
private school, industry, business, the home or an office. 
The best teacher is not too good. This duty of the eve- 
ning school officials calls for search, investigation, a wide 
acquaintanceship with the leaders in a community and a 
knowledge of where and how to search and secure assist- 
ance in searching. 

Teachers for established classes should be selected in 
the light of past experience with the pupils, course of 
study and former teachers. A radical change may be 
desirable for one class, while a continuation of past pol- 
icies may be more desirable for another. A quiet little 
woman, following immediately after a self-assured man, 
pulled the remains of a bookkeeping class together and 
brought the class to a fairly successful termination. 

Changing content and methods of courses. The ad- 
justing of the duration of evening classes may involve 
adding to or subtracting from the subject-matter of 
courses. At times complete reorganization of content is 


needed when established courses are expanded or con- 
tracted, as was noted above in the instance of a milli- 
nery class. 

Courses of study in all phases of education are either 
alive and growing or dormant and dying, depending upon 
the teacher or the general state of the subject. New sub- 
jects, fighting for a place in the curriculum, and subjects 
closely related to the changing status of modern life are 
generally responsive to changing needs and conditions. 
We may therefore expect that courses of study for eve- 
ning classes should be changing in the light of past 
experiences and findings, and in harmony with changing 
life conditions. An evening school teacher, more than 
any other, needs to check himself if he teaches a subject 
twice, using the same content and methods, Such a 
teacher has ceased, temporarily at least, to develop and 
his retention as a teacher might well be questioned. 

Changing the content or methods of a course follow- 
ing newly learned lessons is a charge laid both on the 
teacher and on the supervisor, director or principal. A 
new teacher in a commercial subject was admonished to 
be prepared with much material and to work his pupils 
hard, because that was what they desired. He apparently 
did this, for within a few weeks several of his pupils 
appeared, asking that they be permitted to drop the 
subject. Questioning revealed the fact that he not only 
gave intense instruction in class but also made heavy 
home-work assignments. Such an excuse for dropping 
had been previously unheard-of. The teacher and school 
official learned a new and important lesson. Changes and 
adjustments were made at once, but about one-half of 
the class had been lost. 


Testing results. Testing the results of evening edu- 
cation is very important. It is likewise difficult The 
school and pupils are such that day-school tests are fre- 
quently unsatisfactory. Usually tests cannot be forced 
upon voluntary pupils. There is grave danger that the 
knowledge that tests are required would prevent some 
from enrolling and drive others away before courses were 
completed. Standardized achievement tests in some aca- 
demic subjects are applicable, but for diagnostic purposes 
rather than as tests of accomplishment. 

Several factors are, however, indirect indications of the 
accomplished results of both pupils and classes. Chief 
among these are the successful accomplishments of 
former students in the occupational work, the observa- 
tions and statements of State inspectors in the case of 
subsidized classes and the voluntary statements, letters 
and reports of students, 

In classes and subjects pursued for elementary grade 
or high school credit and a subsequent certificate, the 
question of testing the results of the instruction is simple 
and plain. Established standards must be attained. For 
all other classes and they exist in great number and 
variety the question of testing evening school results 
is as much a problem for study as vocational and edu- 
cational guidance, and organization of courses of study. 
It is an important item in progressive growth. 

Training teachers in service. It may be pointed out 
at this time that the sources of organized teacher-train- 
ing in service are generally two in number, (1) the local 
evening school official and (2) itinerant teacher-trainers 
sent out by State departments of education and State 
universities. Summer school study and correspondence 


study may be self-inaugurated training or may be sug- 
gested by officials. 

The local evening school director or the principals 
usually have little time for supervision after their admin- 
istrative work is accomplished. Some work can always 
be accomplished along this line, however. Certainly 
enough should be accomplished so that the impression 
may not be formed that no training in service exists, 
that it is unnecessary to successful work, or that it is 
not required. Teachers' meetings of the entire evening 
faculty of schools and of homogeneous or departmental 
groups are possible, even though they must be brief. 
Books which are of use to particular groups or indi- 
viduals may be issued. Mimeographed helps may be pre- 
pared and sent out. As has been noted previously, work 
on courses of study with individuals and groups may 
also be made an excellent means of training teachers in 

Itinerant teacher-trainers, specially trained or capable, 
who can assist groups of teachers with common interests, 
are more and more being supplied to fill the needs of 
training in service for evening school teachers. They are 
prepared to assist in studies of subject-matter, methods, 
teaching devices, class conduct and organization of 
courses of study. Teaching requirements for evening 
school teachers are being raised and will continue to 
be raised, just as they are in all other fields of educa- 
tion. The itinerant teacher-trainer is the forerunner and 
certain assurance of higher requirements in the training 
and certification of some forms of evening education 
which have not yet been placed upon a high professional 
basis. We may confidently look forward to considerable 


improvement in the training in service of evening teach- 
ers, and the subsequent growth, development and value 
of the instruction they give. 


1. E3q>lain and illustrate why evening schools must be con- 
ceived in such a manner that they are quickly respon- 
sive to changing needs through the organization and sub- 
ject-matter of their courses. 

2. Explain how annual evening school reports may be made 
a valuable aid in planning future work. 

3. What are some of the reasons why educational experi- 
mentation in various forms is particularly essential to 
progressive evening school development at its inception, 
and to a considerable extent throughout its continued 

4. What are some of the sources you would investigate for 
data bearing on possible classes for a proposed evening 
school organization in an industrial city of 10,000 to 
20,000 population? 

,5. What are some of the factors which might be operating 
that would influence you in determining to discontinue, 
for a time at least, the operation of existing classes? 

6. Name some of the more common reasons behind a conclu- 
sion to offer new courses in your evening schools. 

7. What would you study about a class of the current year, 
and possibly of past years, in an effort to determine 
whether it should be offered again? 

8. What factors operating in evening schools make regular 
attendance and punctuality a particular problem? 

9. Why is teacher-training in service of particular impor- 
tance in evening school administration and supervision? 


Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 



The distinction between the meaning of wrrieulum 
and that of course of study generally is not well defined. 
To many these terms are synonymous. Curriculum gen- 
erally is thought of as having in it the conception of 
more than one, as a number of classes in a subject, de- 
partment or school; or a number of classes required to 
attain a definite goal. Curriculum is often considered an 
inclusive term in that it embraces any number of classes 
in a variety of subjects, each class with an organized 
course of study for instructional purposes. In skeleton 
form this would make a curriculum a list of names of 
classes or, in some instances, subjects. It is upon this 
latter conception of the meaning of the term that this 
chapter is based. It is a discussion of evening school offer- 
ings by subjects and classes. To the following chapter is 
reserved a discussion of courses of study for individual 
classes in various subjects. 

Diversity in Offerings 

Again referring to an evening school as an educational 
institution designed to meet all the educational needs of 
all the people (as nearly as practicable), we may judge 
rightly that the subjects offered should represent a 



diversity of life activities, interests and requirements. 
It is particularly necessary that, at the first organizatior 
of a cosmopolitan evening school, subjects should be 
representative of a variety of interests in order to assisi 
in determining where major emphasis is necessary. Start- 
ing an evening school on a relatively small scale need 
be no bar to planning one or more subjects in a number 
of major fields. 

A study of the summary of evening school attendance 
taken from the Biennial Survey of Education, 1922-1924 
(page 14) indicates a strong demand for three major 
types of instruction elementary, high school and voca- 
tional. Under vocational it is presumed are included all 
courses for men and women which are related to any 
kind of wage-earning occupation. A wide variety of sub- 
jects is undoubtedly included under both the elementary 
and high school classifications. It is under vocational, 
however, that the greatest variety of specific offerings 
would appear, as these subjects represent great diver- 
gence in local occupations. There is evidence which would 
lead one to believe that the data recorded in the survey 
are not wholly reliable in all instances and that the 
enrolment under vocational subjects is greater than indi- 
cated. These data are not secured from city school offi- 
cials direct, and there are evidences that entire enrol- 
ments have erroneously been lumped under one of the 
first two classifications. The principal group under which 
diversity of offerings most frequently occurs is undoubt- 
edly greater in size than is evidenced in the report. The 

* Educational service to adults of all levels of intelligence is admirably 
outlined in Appendix A, p. 316, and the need for a flexible and varied 
program, on p. 332 of the same report. 


Tenth Annual Report of the Federal Board JOT Foca- 
tional Education, pages 134-135, records a total of 
200,856 pupils enrolled in 1924 in evening classes organ- 
ized under approved "State Plans" both federally aided 
and not federally aided. This number does not include 
other vocational classes in evening schools not organized 
under approved State Plans. 

The above condition is noted only to emphasize prop- 
erly the fact of, and need for, diversity in evening school 
offerings. Any evening school, restricted in offerings 
solely to one of the three classifications above referred 
to, is not meeting its full responsibility or opportunity 
for service. Financial inability should be the only cause 
for a restriction in the scope of subjects offered. Boards 
of education and superintendents need to have a broad 
vision. Directors or principals in immediate charge of 
the work must not be biased in any way toward one or 
two of the three general divisions of the offerings found 
in cosmopolitan evening schools. 

Long- Versus Short-Unit Courses 

Unit course is a term which has come with the rise of 
vocational education. 2 In that field of education it is 
frequently coupled with the word "short." It was found 
to be desirable for various good reasons to break up large 
subjects into a number of short classes or "short units/' 
specifically bounded in content and centered on one par- 
ticular phase of the subject. A short-unit course may be 
thought of as a body of teaching material, small in 

3 Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, 1918, Federal Board for 
Vocational Education, pp. 19-23. 


measure, definitely bounded and arranged in a sequence 
which leaves a pupil with more information, apprecia- 
tion or skill Short must always be considered as a rel- 
ative term. 

It will be judged that short units or classes cln be 
applied to industrial, home-making and some commer- 
cial subjects more readily than to grade and high school 
academic subjects. The nature of the content of the 
former is such that portions of it may be isolated and 
taught with little reference to other portions or units. 
This condition does not hold so true for academic sub- 
jects. The latter, however, can be divided into sections 
of various lengths as different specific phases are studied, 
though several may have to be completed before any 
credit for the work can be given or a class completed. 

The psychological principle behind short units of in- 
struction already has been noted. Most adults wish to see 
goals not too far distant. Satisfaction comes from the 
accomplishment and completion of a specific class. These 
two factors add incentive to the instruction and to the 
efforts of the pupils. This principle of organization of 
subject-matter holds true whether a subject is actually 
broken into a number of short-unit classes, each specifi- 
cally named; or whether a subject is of long duration 
with but a single name, though internally divided into 
sections recognizable to the pupils. The resulting values 
of short-unit classes or recognizable divisions of classes 
of long duration are unquestionably worth the added 
administrative work entailed. 

With attendance voluntary, a very fair indication of 
whether instruction is effective in meeting pupils' needs 
may be secured by a survey of class attendance records. 


Data which show a high percentage of attendance, 
average attendance or few drop-outs usually may be 
taken as assurance of good instruction. Referring to the 
evening school attendance chart (Figure 11), we observe 
that the percentage attendance in classes of short dura- 
tion was much better than in those of considerable 
length. There are many more heavy figures than there 
are light for the short-length classes, indicating attend- 
ance of 90 per cent or above. As may be expected ? other 
records bear out the conclusion that there were few 
drop-outs in these short-unit classes. It may be observed 
that many of these short-unit classes follow each other 
frequently, but not necessarily with the same pupils. 

As further evidence of organization value and holding 
power of short-unit classes, see items 15 and 16 of Table 
I, page 144. Here it will be observed that over a period 
of three successive years the short-unit classes had 6 
per cent, 6 per cent and 5.4 per cent better attendance 
than the classes of long duration. 

Value of Physical Products of Classes 

Most adult evening school pupils are not greatly dif- 
ferent from children in day-schools in one respect. They 
like to see the physical results of their work. These are a 
source of interest and act as incentives to future effort. 
Pupils also like to be praised for an excellent piece of 
work. They are pleased when it is placed on exhibition. 
This applies to both men and women. Pupils in the prac- 
tical or vocational subjects, of course, secure the greatest 
satisfaction from this source. It proves to be a strong 
holding power on the pupils. Let a woman start a hat 


in a millinery class or a magazine rack in a hand-craft 
class, or a man start a poster in a show-card writing 
class, and ihe drawing power to the class is greatly 

It should not be inferred that academic classes may 
not also have some physical products, though of a dif- 
ferent nature. Academic pupils like to be told when they 
have written good themes or have prepared excellent 
arithmetic papers. They are pleased when papers are ex- 
hibited, as in penmanship and spelling. In many the 
desire for some kind of certificate of their work is but 
the evidence of the desire for some physical indication 
of their achievement. 

The need for teachers with personal magnetism is 
doubled in academic classes for adults because of the 
relatively small number of the physical products which 
result from the pupils' work. Some pupils, of course, will 
be spurred to do good work and to maintain good at- 
tendance by a distant goal, as the achievement of an 
elementary school or high school diploma, or a govern- 
ment certificate to present for naturalization. The special 
need for teachers with personality in academic evening 
classes should be thoroughly recognized when selections 
are made. 

Range of Offerings 

In Chapter I were listed the chief classifications of 
evening school instruction. Reviewing them, we find they 

English and Citizenship 


Trade and industrial 

Extension and preparatory 
Vocational home-making 

Extension and preparatory 
Agricultural (extension) 
Elementary school subjects 
High school academic subjects 
Physical education 
Art (fine and "hand-craft") 
Junior college subjects 

The above classifications of evening school subjects 
(more roughly grouped as high and elementary school 
and vocational) give one a starting point from which to 
conceive the long lists of possible evening school subjects. 

Americanization subjects. Americanization classes 
include those which prepare for citizenship examinations, 
and elementary, intermediate and advanced English. 
English classes are more than English alone because his- 
tory, arithmetic, health and sanitation, geography and 
civics usually are included. 

Grade, high school and junipr college subjects. 
These subjects are usually classified as academic. They 
are well defined for each of the three divisions named. 
If pupils wish credit for work pursued in the studies in 
these groups, it must reach established standards. Speci- 
fied subjects must be taken for certificates or diplomas. 
Local and State requirements in regard to subjects must 
be followed in each specific instance. 

Commercial subjects. Offerings in commercial sub- 
jects should include others than those generally found in 
most high schools. Courses in bookkeeping, typewriting 
and possibly shorthand may be basic. The following 


classes, however, are suggestive of the variety of courses 
which may be required to meet the needs of those en- 
gaged in commercial pursuits: filing, store service, com- 
mercial law, spelling, penmanship, advertising, show- 
card writing, banking, secretarial work, salesmanship and 
machine operation (several types other than the type- 
writer). This list could be augmented when particular 
commercial occupations centered in special occupations 
and communities are included. Any course which can be 
prepared to assist one to enter or progress in a commer- 
cial occupation has a perfect right to a place in evening 
schools if a sufficient enrolment and a competent teacher 
can be procured. 

Physical education, subjects. To some the inclusion 
of physical education as a legitimate evening school ac- 
tivity may be questioned. Such individuals have but to 
recall that health is given an equal status with six other 
objectives in the "Seven Cardinal Principles of Secon- 
dary Education." If health, through physical education, 
is recognized as being desirable and necessary in sec- 
ondary education, where pupils have additional oppor- 
tunities for healthful exercise, how much more should 
it be recognized in adult education ! As we are beginning 
to believe in sending the "whole child" to school, so 
should we believe in permitting the entire adult to find 
in evening schools all of the developmental activities he 
may desire. 

In most of the larger cities we find the Y. M. C. A., 
the Y. W. C. A. and similar organizations filling this need 
to some extent. There should be no duplication of activ- 
ities. It must be recognized, however, that costs of be- 
longing to such organizations, hours of class meetings 


and the usual social types of people found in the mem- 
bership of these organizations would immediately elimi- 
nate large numbers. In a small city, physical education 
classes in evening schools may be the only organized 
effort of this type. In large cities, with some organiza- 
tions existent, groups of individuals are automatically 
eliminated for various reasons. The public evening school 
is the only type of organization to which all can go, in' 
which all are equal, and in the ownership of which each 
rightly feels he has a share. 

Physical education should be corrective. Team-work 
should be a part of the program. Swimming and life- 
saving may form a part of the work or be organized into 
separate classes. Opportunities in physical education 
should be open to all in classes according to age, sex and 

Art subjects. There are those who would bar art and 
some academic subjects from the evening school curricu- 
lum because they are not essential to economic growth 
or to the meeting of everyday problems. This is a narrow 
view. Many are recognizing that cultural subjects have 
a very logical place in the evening schools. 

Worthy use of leisure is also one of the "Seven Car- 
dinal Principles of Secondary Education.'' The continual 
shortening of the hours and days of labor is making the 
worthy use of leisure a more and more vital problem to 
an increasingly large body of our population. It is a prob- 
lem of concern to economists, sociologists and thinkers 
generally, as well as to the large number of those imme- 
diately affected. An interest in cultural things will be of 
great value to those thus affected and to the nation as 
a whole. Chief among the solutions of the problem of 


worthy use of leisure is interest in cultural activities. This 
factor affects practically all individuals. 

Music in various forms, painting, drawing and sculp- 
ture should be made available if at all possible. Hand- 
craft art or the employment of art principles in the de- 
sign, and decoration of utilitarian articles may in some 
instances be possible when subjects in the fine arts are 
not. Classes in pottery, basketry, dyeing and batik, jesso 
work, art in dress and interior decoration are examples 
of the types of instruction referred to. These find ardent 
and enthusiastic pupils among women particularly. 

Agricultural subjects. Some studies in agriculture 
cannot be carried on successfully in evening schools, but 
those having to do with agricultural economics, me- 
chanics, laboratory work in testing and textbook and 
lecture work can be offered in the evening, in schools or 
other buildings. Such subjects are more applicable to 
evening schools in small cities and villages than to those 
in large cities. They form a group of very legitimate sub- 
jects in communities where they are applicable to the 
needs of the people. They are vocational in every sense 
of the word. 

Home-making subjects. Another group of vocational 
subjects is that centering around home-making. Training 
in the occupation of home-making, together with agri- 
culture and trades and industries, is specifically recog- 
nized and subsidized by the federal and State govern- 
ments. Home-making is one exception to that part of 
the accepted definition of vocational education referring 
to occupations pursued for gain (wages). 

Vocational home-making subjects in evening schools 
have developed rapidly, both in extent and quality. The 


effects of competent teacher training are becoming no- 
ticeable. Day-school teachers (often employed in eve- 
ning schools) in these subjects are a highly organized 
group. Short-unit courses in numerous subjects, backed 
by well-organized courses of study, exist to pattern from. 
Teacher training in service is developing. State super- 
vision is usually effective and constantly helpful. Short 
units of instruction are particularly emphasized. 

Vocational home-making subjects in evening schools 
include a greater variety than is usually found in day- 
schools. Cooking might include units described as plain, 
meat, pastry, fish, bread, vegetable and unusual cooking. 
Sewing might have units of instruction divided into 
plain sewing, undergarments, house dresses, aprons, 
street dresses, tailoring, materials, childrens' garments 
and Christmas sewing. Millinery should be divided ac- 
cording to seasonal demands. Buying, the home budget, 
table service, art applied to articles made and assembled 
by the home-maker, home nursing and home sanitation 
are additional groups of home-making subjects, each of 
which might be organized into one or more short units. 
Except in some phases of sewing, no unit need have 
prerequisites. Pupils may enter or leave at the beginning 
or end of any unit, pursuing just the exact instruction 
they desire. 

One qualifying statement should be made concerning 
the above references to short units in home-making sub- 
jects. In small communities the devision of subject-mat- 
ter into short units may not proceed to the degree that 
is possible in large cities. A course may have to embrace 
more than a small unit of work and possibly be slightly 
more general in character in order to attract a sufficient 


number of pupils to make their formation into a class 
possible. This condition in small organizations cannot be 
ignored. The writer's belief in the value of dividing sub- 
jects into short-unit classes is by no means lessened by 
the assertion regarding small communities, or by very 
notable exceptions of some evening classes which could 
be named. 

Trade and industrial subjects. The possible offerings 
in this division are very extensive. They are as divergent 
as the occupations listed under trades and industries. 
Our nation has changed from one which was dominantly 
agricultural to one which is chiefly industrial. That 
process of change continues. With the rise and growth of 
industry to its important position in the vocational life 
*of the nation have come the interest in and emphasis 
placed upon trade and industrial education. The break- 
down and frequent disappearance of apprenticeship have 
hastened the centering of interest upon this form of 
vocational education. A study of the many hundreds of 
occupations pursued for gain, as listed in the federal 
census, will rapidly convince one of the wide field of 
occupational endeavor classified under trades and indus- 
tries. All of these may in some communities be the cause 
for the establishment of occupational classes. Some, at 
least, usually should be in evening schools. 

All that has been said about the desirability of short- 
unit courses in the section on home-making subjects ap- 
plies with equal force to trade and industrial subjects. 
The development of courses of study, organization of 
classes, training of teachers and supervision for trade 
and industrial subjects has closely paralleled that for 
vocational home-making. 


The organization of subject-matter in industrial sub- 
jects presupposes scientific trade analysis. The organiza- 
tion of short-unit courses is particularly dependent upon 
such analysis. Without it as a basis little that is definitely 
assuring can be accomplished. 

The Smith-Hughes Act, under the provisions of which 
States and local communities may secure subsidies for 
vocational home-making, agriculture and trade and in- 
dustrial education, is discussed in considerable detail in 
Chapter XII. Reference to this chapter will reveal the 
fact that trade extension classes, not trade preparatory 
classes, are subject to partial reimbursement for teachers* 
salaries. Classes in related subjects such as drawing, 
mathematics, trade English and science may also be 

The types of occupational groups to be reached 
through evening industrial classes are numerous, though 
quite well defined. Bulletin No. 18, 1918, Evening In^ 
dustrial Schools, issued by the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Education, lists these groups on pages 14 and 15 
as follows: 

"(a) Specialized machine hands who, while running one 
machine, wish to learn how to operate another; such as, for 
example, the planer hand, who wants to learn to operate the 
universal grinder. 

" (b) Skilled workmen who, because of the progress of their 
trade, find themselves lacking in a small but necessary body 
of knowledge required to meet new demands in their trade j 
such as, for example, the printer who needs instruction as to 
how to match colors, and how to 'doctor 7 ink; or the piano 
tuner who wishes to learn the construction and mechanism of 
the player piano. 


"(c) Operatives or workers in the low-grade skilled and 
unskilled occupations, where there are 'tricks of the trade 1 to 
be taught, and best ways of doing things which the shop is 
not organized to teach. This sort of instruction commonly calls 
for brief courses and for concrete, direct and specific treat- 
ment of subject-matter. 

"(d) Workers on specialized jobs, desiring instruction to 
meet requirements on the next job in line of promotion; such 
as, for example, the cleaner or finisher in the dress and waist 
industry who wishes to be an examiner or cloth inspector. 
The unit courses in rod-making in the furniture industry, given 
to machine hands to qualify them to become cabinet-makers, 
also illustrates this type of work. 

"(e) Groups of men in a skilled occupation who are desir- 
ous of taking training brief and direct in character but who 
cannot be induced to take extended courses. 

11 (f) Persons engaged in skilled occupations who wish to 
take instruction in subjects related to their trade, such as re- 
lated drawing, science or mathematics. 

"(g) Persons of superior training and ambition who are 
willing and able to carry out a course of study extending over 
two or three years. Such a group can probably be recruited 
only in cities of considerable size or with an extensive leading 

In the Appendix of Bulletin No. 18, referred to above, 
there appear on page 43 lists of typical unit trade and 
industrial courses in seventeen of the most common trade 
and industrial classifications or groups. Following the 
descriptive names of each of these unit courses is given 
a number suggestive of the number of lessons which 
might be included in the course. The numbers of short- 
unit courses under the above listed classifications vary 
from three to forty-three. The seventeen classified groups 
are as follows: 


"L Automobile repair and construction 
"II. Baking 

"III. Building construction (including carpentry, mill- 
room work, bricklaying, building foreman, cost esti- 
mating and concrete construction) 

"IV. Drawing and design (including building construction 
drafting, sheet-metal drafting, interior decorating and 
machine drafting and design) 
"V. Electricity (general) 
"VI. Gas manufacture 
"VII. Heat treatment 
"VIII. Machine-shop subjects 
"IX. Plumbing 

"X. Printing (including press work and linotype opera- 

"XI. Radio operation 
"XII. Sheet-metal 
"XIII. Slide-rule 
"XIV. Steam-fitting 
"XV. Telegraphy (Morse) 
"XVI. Telephony 
"XVII. Welding" 

In order to emphasize and illustrate how trade instruc- 
tion in one field may be divided into unit courses for 
purposes of organization and instruction, the following 
list of suggestive unit courses is taken from the same 
bulletin by the Federal Board for Vocational Education. 
It must be recalled in reading this list under "Automobile 
Repair and Construction" that the instruction covers 
work usually done by many men, each man's work now 
frequently being recognized as an occupation in itself. 
The material quoted is from pages 43 and 44 of the above 
named bulletin. 



"The unit courses in automobile repair and construction in- 


"A-l. Practical shop work and lectures on frames and 

axles 10 

"A-2. Practical shop work and lectures on transmis- 
sion, clutches, and steering gears 10 

"A-3. Practical shop work and lectures on carburet- 
ors 10 

"A-4. Practical shop work and lectures on engines 

and lubrication 30 

"A-5. Practical shop work and lectures on ignition 

and magnetos 15 

"A-6. Practical shop work and lectures on batteries 

and starting and lighting 25 

"A-7. Laboratory testing and experimenting on ig- 
nition 10 

"A-8. Laboratory testing and experimenting on start- 
ing and lighting 10 

"A-9. Laboratory testing and experimenting on bat- 
teries 10 

"A-10. Laboratory testing and experimenting on en- 
gines 10 

"A-ll. Laboratory testing and experimenting on lubri- 
cation 5 

"A-12. Laboratory testing and experimenting on chas- 
sis 5 

"A-13. Sketching, plan-reading and mathematics of 

the automobile 20 

"A-14. Garage organization and management 10 

"A-15. Garage records and cost systems 10 

"A-16. Salesmanship of automobiles 20 

"A-17. Salesroom records and cost systems 10 

"A-18. Advantages and disadvantages of different 

types of automobile devices and construction 10 


"A- 19. Discussion of advantages and disadvantages of 

motor trucks and their construction 10 

"A-20. Discussion of advantages and disadvantages of 
different types of gas tractors and their con- 
struction 10 
"A-21. Testing strength of material as used in auto- 
motive construction 5" 

Other vocational subjects. Evening school voca- 
tional offerings are by no means restricted to those di- 
visions subsidized by the federal government namely 
agriculture, home-making and trade extension, including 
related subjects. At times it may be desirable to offer 
vocational classes which do not meet any of several es- 
tablished standards. Such classes should be organized if 
they fill well-defined needs. 

Trade preparatory classes are not subsidized in evening 
school industrial education. Some communities may find 
it to the interest of many to provide industrial classes of 
such a character. 

Commercial subjects are vocational, though they are 
not subsidized under the provisions of the federal act. 
Mining, fishing, transportation, logging and personal 
service are suggestive of other occupational fields. 
Courses in such are vocational education. They may be 
very legitimate fields in which to offer courses. Instances 
could be enumerated, as in mining, where this has been 

Any work pursued for gain is a vocation. The so-called 
professions, however, are not listed or thought of under 
the educational term vocational education. Preparation 


for those occupations for which a college education is not 
necessary is called vocational education. 

If any one should still question the legitimacy of voca- 
tional subjects in either day-schools or evening schools 
in America, a democracy, he has but to recall that Amer- 
ica up to a decade ago provided for those fortunate peo- 
ple who had financial means practical training (of a 
college grade) in the professions. This was and still is 
at public expense. This practice was undemocratic in the 
extreme. Vocational education to-day, of less than col- 
lege grade, is now making preparation of a practical 
nature, at public expense, open to every one, including 
those who have little means. This is democratic and an 
evidence of progress in a hopeful direction. 


1. Justify the assertion that evening school offerings should 
be as diversified as, and permit of even greater specializa- 
tion than is possible in, cosmopolitan high schools. 

2. Why is the short-unit class type of organization more 
applicable to occupational subjects than to academic 

3. How may subject-matter in academic classes be organ- 
ized to overcome this partial handicap? 

4. Explain the close connection between trade analysis and 
the organization of short-unit courses in trade and indus- 
trial subjects (see references), 

5. Explain why the services of both a supervisory leader 
and a teacher are essential in naming a short-unit course, 
establishing the limits, selecting teaching material and 
methods and organizing the course of study. 



Agricultural Education, Bulletin No. 13, Federal Board for 
Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Allen, Charles R., The Instructor: The Man and the Job (J. 
B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia) . 

Cook, Hulda, and Walker, Edith, Adult Elementary Educa- 
tion (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1927). 

Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, 1918, Federal 
Board for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.) . 
Out of print. 

Home Economics Education, Bulletin No. 28, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Payne, Arthur F., Organization of Evening Vocational Classes, 
Bulletin, 1920, General Extension Division, University 
of Minnesota (Minneapolis, Minnesota). 

Selvidge, R. W., How to Teach a Trade (Manual Arts Press, 
Peoria, Illinois). 

Syllabi of Elementary Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 1, State 
Department of Education (St. Paul, Minnesota). 

Trade and Industrial Education, Bulletin No. 17, 1918, Fed- 
eral Board for Vocational Education (Washington, 
D. C.). 

Trade Extension Courses in Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 14, 
Board for Vocational Education, Springfield, Illinois. 



What a Course of Study Is 

In the discussions of this chapter, a course of study 
is considered as organized teaching material for a specific 
class. In this it should be distinguished from lists of 
classes and subjects, or the skeletons of all-embracing 
curriculums. The latter were discussed in the previous 

Courses of study for evening classes have some phases 
which require special attention. Recall the evening school 
as being an educational organization responsive to indi- 
vidual and changing needs, evening pupils as a cross- 
section of local society and short-unit courses or some 
modification of them as being of peculiar value from 
organization and teaching standpoints. The subject-mat- 
ter and methods of particular courses of study will be 
influenced greatly by these recognizable factors. No mat- 
ter what the length of the class is, it is desirable that 
courses of study be organized on the lesson basis. Any 
larger division would tend to hinder the achievement of 
the best possible results. 

Broadening Conception of What Courses of Study 
Should Include 

There was a time, not long past, when a course of 
study was thought of as a very brief plan for the subject- 



matter of a class. At times it was little more than a 
description of a modern course of study. Again it was 
a very brief outline of subject-matter; and in practical 
courses it was lists of tools and machines, technical 
processes and lists of articles to make or jobs to do. 

The modern course of study is the product of the work 
of the supervisor and teacher. It has some well-defined 
plan of organization. It includes material bearing upon 
a variety of factors influencing instruction. It is always 
in process of revision based upon available new material 
and the results of past experience. A course of study, no 
matter how well conceived and developed, should not be 
placed in cold storage after being used each year. 

There are no fixed forms of organization for evening 
school courses of study. Particular subjects may be or- 
ganized better under one form than another. Generally 
there should not be insistence upon an iron-clad form 
for fear of stultifying a course or of loading it with 
extraneous material. There are recognized factors influ- 
encing good instruction, any number of which might be 
found desirable for inclusion in a course of study. 

Content of Courses of Study 

A course of study should always begin with a state- 
ment clearly defining the general objectives of adult eve- 
ning school education and the specific aim or aims of the 
particular subject. After these, any of the following 
classifications of teaching material might be included in 
the order which seems most suitable: brief description 
of subject-matter for each lesson, supplementary subject- 
matter for rapid pupils, class organization, lesson-plan, 


special teaching devices, illustrative materials, references 
for pupils and teacher, plans for providing for individual 
differences, original material not otherwise available, 
points of particular difficulty and methods of overcom- 
ing them, and questions and problems for class discus- 
sion or home assignment. 

If lesson-plans are prepared in considerable detail, 
many of these factors of instruction might be included 
in. them. Since evening school instruction is intense and 
frequently on the short-unit class basis, and since each 
lesson is more or less an entity, the accumulation of 
detailed lesson-plans could provide an excellent begin- 
ning for a course of study. It could thereafter be kept 
up to date by providing space for adding new material 
and making changes in the light of experiences and ex- 
periments. Illustrations will be given later of parts of 
courses in different stages of development which require 
the experience gained by additional use before they can 
be considered satisfactory. 

A test of a course of study or a lesson-plan for evening 
instruction is found in laying it before a new or sub- 
stitute teacher to use in carrying on class instruction. 
What has been accomplished and what is missing will 
be apparent quickly. If a new teacher can carry on the 
work of instruction with few questions about content, 
methods and the like, the course of study or well-devel- 
oped lesson-plans may be considered quite effective. 

Courses of study in English and Americanization pre- 
pared by the United States Bureau of Naturalization 
have been found very well planned for their purpose in 
evening schools. Published material on evening courses 
of study by city school systems, however, are still chiefly 


in the descriptive or outline stage of development. They 
have not been advanced as far as many day-school 
courses of study. Because their development depends to 
a considerable extent upon the direction and assistance 
of already overworked administrators and many teachers 
without specialized pedagogical training, they are nat- 
urally of slow growth. These factors, together with the 
newness of the work, are the principal reasons why 
courses of study are one of the chief weaknesses in the 
development of evening schools. 

The Value of a Name 

The course of study and the name of the class are 
closely connected. Upon the name may depend much of 
the drawing power of the class. A name should be de- 
scriptive of the subject-matter, not too long, and catchy 
if possible. Such a name is at times very difficult to 
determine upon, and is worthy of considerable time and 
careful thought. A class called "Street Dresses" is far 
more attractively and better named than if it were desig- 
nated as "Sewing II." "Tailoring" is a better name than 
"Garment-Making III." "Unusual Cooking" has proved 
to be better than "Fancy Cooking." "Everyday Law and 
Business Practice" was found more satisfactory than 
"Business Man's Course," "Physical Education" than 
"Gymnasium." The list could be extended indefinitely. 
It may be desirable to change names after giving them 
a trial. 

Developing New Courses of Study 

When new classes are to be organized in an evening 
school, the first duty of the supervisor or principal is to 


cooperate with the teacher selected in outlining what 
the class should accomplish. At times this is difficult, at 
times relatively simple. 

The exact bounds of the subject-matter to be covered 
should be established first. If the courses are academic 
and similar to day-school courses, the subject-matter will 
be virtually the same; but methods, devices, conduct of 
the class and approach to the pupils will be different. If 
the courses are of a practical nature, commercial, for 
instance, and similar in content to day-school courses, 
the same considerations should be given to methods and 
the like as were just enumerated. In some vocational 
subjects, principally home-making and trade and indus- 
trial subjects, a careful analysis of the occupation or 
division of the occupation which is to be taught should 
be made first. Such an analysis is sometimes desirable 
also in special academic subjects, such as public speaking, 
and in commercial subjects not regularly taught in day 

Such occupational analyses are necessary to determine 
just what subject-matter should be taught and what 
should be omitted. Being intensive in character, evening 
vocational classes should contain only basic material. 
Whether a vocational class is to be preparatory or exten- 
sion in purpose may affect the subject-matter chosen and 
will certainly affect the methods used. A description of 
the subject-matter of the course should be a minimum 
achievement of this first planning by the teacher and 
school official. 

Lesson-plans in considerable detail are desirable the 
first year. They should, of course, be made in advance. 
During the first trial of the course, notes should be made 


on the results achieved, the workability of lesson-plans 
and desirable changes and additions. 

The following description of the contents of a short- 
unit course shows what the writer has in mind as an 
absolute minimum with which to begin. This enumera- 
tion of the chief divisions of content would be a basis 
for nightly lesson-plans. 

"First unit, 6 weeks, 12 lessons 

"In this course food elements and principles and standards 
for finished products of cooking are emphasized. An endeavor 
is also made to point out all the possible short cuts and proc- 
esses. The lessons include egg-cooking, vegetables used in 
soups and creamed, casserole dishes, quick bread, shortcakes, 
puddings creamed and baked, salad-dressings and simple 
salads, pies one-crust and two-crust, rolled out and dropped 
cookies, cakes, sauces and frozen desserts." 

First Reorganization of a Course of Study 

The reorganization of a course of study for a second 
year should be made at the close of the first year while 
the work is fresh in the teacher's mind, and should be 
based on the notes taken during the lessons. These might 
refer to subject-matter, methods, conduct of the class 
and numerous items enumerated above under "Content 
of Courses of Study." Lesson-plans should also be re- 
ferred to. 

In rewriting the course of study, whether in longhand 
or on the typewriter, the loose-leaf form of record is 
desirable, so that additional notes of any kind may be 


added. A revised course of study might look somewhat 
like the two examples below of the first pages of courses 
of study. If it is possible to outline courses of study as 
minutely as this for the first year (and it can be done by 
instructors with teaching experience), so much the better. 



Unit 1 20 Lessons 
Unit 2 12 Lessons 

"Drafting patterns in individual measures is a step of prepa- 
ration toward becoming a designer of clothing, a step which 
not only trains both eye and hand to greater accuracy and 
the eye to keener appreciation of line, but aids in a better 
understanding of the construction of garments." To approach 
the subject by means of simple problems is the purpose of 
the following outline: 

Garments constructed from individual measure 

Instructions given in class 

Much of the work done at home 

Returned to class for inspection and criticism 

Lesson 1. Problem 1 Sewing Bag 

Constructed from: one-half yard material, two yards ribbon 
or cord. 

Lesson 2. Problem 2 Bloomers 

1. Taking of measures 

2. Computing necessary material 

3. Choice of material, as to: 

a. Durability 

b. Color 

c. Width 

d. Price 

e. Materials used 


4. Construction of pattern 

5. Folding of material 

a. Considering economy 


Brief Outline for 12 Weeks in Blue-Print Reading and Build- 
ing Estimating 

First week Tuesday night 

Explanation of course, purpose, elementary requirements 
for reading blue-prints 

Define a drawing and a blue-print, and tell the object of 
plans and how they are made 

Define a specification 

Explain the object and relation of drawings to specifications 

Discuss any questions that may be asked 
Thursday night 

Define an elevation and a plan 

Explain the relation of each, dimensions and the use of the 
architect's scale 

Diagram drawings of each on the board 

Discuss hidden construction and framing plans 

General discussion and summary of week's work 
Second week Tuesday night 

Key of general symbols of building materials on board 
for class to copy; discussions 

Each member of class receives set of blue-prints 

Apply previous work to plans, with questions 

Detail study of basement and foundation plan 
Thursday night 

Study of first-floor plans 

Class reading of specifications applying to basement, foun- 
dation and first-floor plans 

Questions, notes and instructions for home study of plans 
already discussed in class 


Second Reorganization of a Course of Study 

A second reorganization or third planning of a course 
of study may be and probably is desirable. Such a third 
drafting of a course of study is again based upon the 
current year's experiences and experiments. The value 
of the loose-leaf form of record is not diminished. The 
material should be typewritten and bound if possible. 
Any of the factors enumerated above under "Content 
of Courses of Study" might be included. If planned on the 
lesson basis as a unit, the organization of the material 
is greatly simplified. 

The third drafting may result in a changed form of 
organization. That form should be sufficiently flexible 
to allow items to be added or deleted as circumstances 
dictate. The following first lesson of a course of study 
in home planning is suggestive of what might be con- 
sidered fairly well developed. It is not the only possible 
form for organizing the work. Many details are not 
included which are considered of such a basic nature 
that any teacher employed for the class should be fa- 
miliar with them. 


This course is organized to assist men and women of moder- 
ate means in planning houses. It is not highly technical in 
character. Ability in drawing, freehand or mechanical, is not 
a prerequisite to entrance. 

The 18 lessons are divided about equally between (1) lec- 
ture, demonstration, discussion and reference reading, and (2) 
simple mechanical drawing of floor plans. 



Foundations Materials, Costs, Methods of Construction 

and Longevity 

Materials needed by pupils 

Pencil, eraser, note-book 
Materials furnished by school 

Common one-foot rule, drawing paper. T-square, triangle, 
drawing board 
Class organization 

First 45 to 60 minutes for lecture, demonstration, discus- 
sion and reference reading 

Remainder of 2-hour period for pupil drawing and personal 
instruction by teacher 
Subject-matter of lecture 


I Concrete (monolithic) 

1. How wood frames are built; danger of using earth bank 
as a side of form 

2. Proportions used locally 7 parts of sand and 1 of ce- 
ment with such granite spalls as can be readily floated 
into mixture in center of forms 

3. Footings their purpose and construction; seldom used 

4. Winter building with concrete; danger locally; no 
financial advantage 

5. Waterproofing little needed locally because of light 
and sandy soil 

Outside cement and asphalt 
Inside cement 

6. Basement floors. Should cover footings. Purpose, value, 
and proportions of the base and top coat 

7. Drain tiles along outside walls in wet places 


II. Granite (local product) 

1. Faces rock, seam faced, hammered, polished 

2. Masonry coursed and broken ashlar, random and 
coursed rubble 

Illustrate with well-known local examples, drawings, 
and photographs 

III. Concrete blocks 

1. Molded for common purposes 

2. Variety of faces 

3. Value of dead air spaces 

4. Furring required for a good job 

IV. Brick 

1. Local product too soft for foundations 

2. Veneer over concrete above grade 

V. Hollow tile 

1, Local product too soft 

2. Hard, strong products can be used for foundations and 
be stuccoed and plastered 

Subject-matter of demonstration 
Single-line floor plan sketching; five-room bungalow 

Class work 

Class draws floor-plan sketches of a five-room bungalow to 
%" scale, using rule and pencil 
Teaching devices and illustrative materials 

Perspective picture of house cut off about 4 feet above floor 
showing room arrangement, openings, furniture, and so forth 

Advertisements and samples of brick, hollow tile and ce- 
ment blocks 

Griffith, Carpentry, pp. 18-24. 

Seaman, Progressive Steps in Architectural Drawing, pp. 

Teacher-drawn model of single-line sketch of floor plan 

Pictures, advertisements, and sketches of foundations 

Class references 
Books of floor plans 
Building material catalogues having floor plans 


Pamphlets of Portland Cement Association 
Pamphlets of brick companies and associations 
Actual floor plans 

Home-work assignment 

Bring sketch of first-floor plan of house occupied to next 
class meeting 


I. Take enrolment 

II. Explain course; outline and define limits; read "Through 
the Looking Glass of Architecture" from The Artisan (Dun- 
woody Institute, Minneapolis) 

Define and explain the importance of the first lesson 

III. Lecture 

1. Explain how to keep notes 

2. Subject-matter (see above) 

3. Methods Use illustrations from Teaching De- 

vices and Illustrative Materials, above. 
Through questions draw from class, 
when possible, material relative to 
costs, appearance, longevity, and the 
like; encourage class discussion, but 
guide it 

IV. Demonstration of single-line floor-plan sketching 

1. Subject-matter (see above) 

2. Methods Draw on blackboard with straight 
edge; illustrate from Progressive Steps in Archi- 
tectural Drawing; use perspective picture of house 
cut above window opening line; pass around pre- 
viously prepared model drawing. The above visual 
explanations are to accompany the verbal ex- 
planation of this process of drawing 

V. Pupils draw and receive additional instruction individ- 
ually and in groups 

VI. Assignment of home-work 

VII. Review instruction of evening briefly 


The above example of a rather fully developed course 
of study for one evening is purposely made extensive. 
Three major activities, namely, a lecture and class dis- 
cussion, a technical demonstration, and class work are 
purposely included. A large number of the items enu- 
merated above under "Content of Courses of Study" are 
to be found in this day-unit of a course of study. It is 
apparent that a plan somewhat like this one is applicable 
to both vocational and academic subjects. Irrespective of 
the character each teacher should have some definite plan. 

It may readily be seen that it is possible to extend a 
lesson-plan to include much of this material, while it is 
itself a day-unit of a course of study. It should not be 
interpreted that this is the most desirable form that a 
course of study for evening schools can take, but it has 
the virtue of permitting latitude. Because of the impor- 
tance of short-unit courses and intensive teaching of each 
lesson, the lesson as a unit and basis of instruction in a 
course of study is particularly applicable. 


Lesson-plans are closely associated with courses of 
study, yet the writings and teachings on the former are 
numerous as compared to those on the latter. A chapter 
or a book might be written on lesson-plans. Such is not 
the present purpose. That a proper use of a course of 
study requires that adequate lesson-plans be prepared 
should be apparent from the above discussion of the 
development of new courses of study. 

Formal lesson-plans usually have included in them 
items somewhat as follows : 


Review, or establishment of a basis of instruction for the 

Presentation of the new lesson 

Individual work, class discussion or supervised study 


Assignment of new lesson if there is home-work, or brief 
anticipatory announcement of next lesson 

With slight variations, a general outline as above indi- 
cated is applicable to any type of subject. 

The very nature of a lesson-plan dictates that it be 
prepared in advance of the lesson. The builder of a 
bridge, motor, building or highway makes elaborate plans 
in advance, not while the article or structure is being 
made or assembled. This book was in the process of 
detailed planning for several years; its actual writing 
was a matter of months. 

Every one recognizes the value of well-defined plans. 
Yet many teachers, among them some in evening schools, 
apparently consider lesson-plans either unnecessary or 
not worth the effort expended on them. No teacher should 
enter a class and expect to teach a lesson without first 
planning it. Sometimes the lesson-plans may have to be 
extensive and very inclusive, sometimes they may be 
just a few written notes, sometimes mental notes based 
on a thought-out plan of procedure. The degree of their 
detail may be greatly influenced by the teaching experi- 
ence of the instructor and his familiarity with the sub- 
ject-matter of the course. The importance of including 
brief outlines of lessons in a course of study, especially 
one based upon the lesson as a teaching unit, should be 
apparent. Once prepared and included thus, the lesson- 
plan is there as a basis for instruction for all time, and 


by whoever may have occasion to use the course of 
study. The following is a sample of a lesson outline in 
dressmaking sent out in mimeographed form by the 
Home Economics Division of the Minnesota State De- 
partment of Education. It will be noted that the subject- 
matter is worked out in considerable detail in this out- 
line form. 


First night 

1. Garments to be made in the first unit; dresses 

2. Materials to be used for these dresses: samples for il- 

a. Gingham 

b. Percale 

c. Cotton crepe 

d. Beach cloth 

e. Indian head 
1 Poplin 

g. Any other firm material 

3. Patterns 

a. Make 

b. Style 

(1) Suited to 

(a) Person 

(b) Use 

(c) Comfort 
e. Size 

4. Points to consider in selecting the material for a dress 

a. Kind 

b. Color 

(1) Suited to the person 

(2) Suited to the garment 

(3) Will it fade? 


Work on Course of Study a Means of Teacher-Training 

in Service 

The difficulty of always securing adequately trained 
teachers for evening schools has been indicated. Training 
in service to meet special evening school problems is an 
important consideration also, and difficult because of the 
lack of time of school officials for supervisory work. With 
a minimum amount of instruction to teachers, in groups, 
a principal or director may outline plans for building 
courses of study. Work on these may be made an excellent 
source for studying common problems found in class 
organization, teaching methods, illustrative materials, 
approach to the pupil and subject-matter. Such work may 
lead to reference reading, individual requests for assist- 
ance in course-planning and general alertness by teachers 
for opportunities to improve their instruction. The writ- 
ing of courses of study by teachers, under supervision, 
holds in it a possibility for molding instruction, through 
teacher-training in service, which evening school officials 
cannot afford to ignore. 


1. Explain the importance of beginning a course of study 
with statements of the general objectives of the school 
and specific aims of the subject. 

2. To be of real value why must a course of study include 
more than a brief description or outline of subject- 

3. What is a good test of the value and workability of a 
course of study? 


4. Why should a plan for a course of study permit of con- 
siderable modification? Illustrate. 

5. Why is some form of a course of study which recognizes 
the lesson as the basic teaching unit particularly adapted 
to evening school courses? 

6. Why cannot a course of study be written successfully 
alone either by the supervisor or the teacher? 

7. Why are a number of years required to develop and write 
a satisfactory course of study? 

8. Explain why a course of study should never be said to be 


Bobbitt, Franklin, How to Make a Curriculum (Houghton 

Mifflin Company, Boston). 
Charters, W. W., Curriculum Construction (The Macmillan 

Company, New York) . 
Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, 1918, Federal 

Board for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Out of print. 
Johnson, Franklin W., Administration and Supervision of the 

High School (Ginn and Company, Boston), Ch. XVII. 
Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 

Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 

Kansas) . 
Selvidge, R. W., How to Teach a Trade (The Manual Arts 

Press, Peoria, Illinois) . 
Syllabi for Elementary Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 1, State 

Department of Education (St. Paul, Minnesota). 



Importance of All Teachers 

In the past too many teachers have taught subjects 
rather than people. They have been concerned with sub- 
ject-matter and to some extent with methods, and rightly 
so. However, such teachers have had only half of the 
teaching vision. They have not gone the last and most 
important half of the way. They have failed to recognize 
that the vital thing in education is some sort of develop- 
ment in the pupil, accomplished, it is true, through very 
essential subject-matter, class conduct a,nd methods. To 
develop mental abilities of a constructive type, to train in 
rational thinking and acting, are far more essential to the 
ultimate good of both the individual and society than any 
amount of pigeonholed subject-matter. 

Thanks to improved leadership, teachers are now being 
trained with this new vision, and many teachers already 
in service are catching that vision. There is still much to 
be accomplished, but the signs are hopeful. Evening 
school teachers, either of academic or of vocational sub- 
jects, need this vision just as much as do all others, even 
if their pupils do pursue their studies for quite immediate 
and utilitarian values. 

The teachers who can see only subject-matter, classes 



of pupils and a monthly check are scarcely more than 
machine operators. They do not see the importance of 
their work with the plastic minds of pupils who look up 
to them as masters. This attitude is just as true of even- 
ing as of day pupils. Teachers of this type have little 
conception of the importance of their work as it affects 
the life of the individual, community and nation. 

It is particularly essential that in a relatively new 
organization such as the evening school something more 
than routine work be demanded of teachers. Vision, cour- 
age and enthusiasm are needed. The evening school or- 
ganization is such, fortunately, that a teacher without a 
broad conception of the importance of his teaching usu- 
ally need not be employed a second year. In connection, 
with the importance of teaching and teachers the late 
President Roosevelt said: 

"You teachers and it is a mere truism to say this you 
teachers make the whole world your debtor; and of you it can 
be said, as it can be said of no other profession save the pro- 
fession of the ministers of the gospel themselves, if you teach- 
ers did not do your work well, this republic could not outlast 
the span of a generation." 

What All Teachers Should Know 

Just as evening school teachers should visualize the 
importance of their work and its ultimate and lasting 
results, so also should they be familiar with certain 
underlying educational principles of teaching. These 
principles are considered necessary equipment for any 
and every teacher. Because of the newness of evening 
schools on an extensive scale, because teachers are not 


prepared specifically for evening school teaching in well- 
organized and specialized curriculums, because of the 
inherent nature of the school which requires that teachers 
must be selected first here and then there to meet special 
requirements, the matter of training in some of these 
basic principles is at times neglected. Half-hearted at- 
tempts have been made in this training, in the past, but 
now more serious organized efforts are being made to 
supply it. Extension classes and teacher-training in serv- 
ice conducted by the local school officials or by itinerant 
teacher-trainers are beginning to supply some of the 
deficiencies. Some teacher training institutions are at- 
tempting to improve this condition through classes in 
regular sessions also. 

The building up of trained evening school faculties, 
the individual teachers of which are employed year after 
year, is another step in the direction of better trained 
evening school teachers. Some of the basic facts and prin- 
ciples underlying all good teaching, including that in 
evening schools, are biy:efly listed below: 

Methods of instruction inductive, deductive and combina- 
tions; initiative, project, lecture; class, group and indi- 
vidual ; drill and review 

Selection and use of illustrative materials 

Physical organization and conduct of classes 

Teaching devices acts of teacher and pupils, use of black- 
board, socialized recitation and competitive work 

Laws of learning 

Conduct of a demonstration 

Making a lesson-plan 

Establishment of subject aims 

Selection of subject-matter for courses based upon social 


Objectives and purposes of all education 
Recognition of individual differences social, physical, men- 
tal, environmental 
Measuring results of teaching 
Organization and control of public education 
Constructive behavioristic control of pupils 
Proper use of equipment and supplies 

The above list of facts and principles to be observed in 
teaching might be extended or possibly consolidated. 
Recognition should be made of most or all of these basic 
principles of teaching in any evening school teacher- 
training program. 

Dual Requirements of Evening School Teachers 

Mastery of subject-matter, and methods of teaching, 
including class conduct, are two factors of great impor- 
tance in all evening school teaching. 1 The fact that pupils 
are adults affects subject-matter. The fact that they have 
definite goals of achievement affects it. The fact that 
pupils often have a background, practical or theoretical, 
in a subject may affect the subject-matter selected. The 
teacher must be a master of his subject and evidence the 

In addition to having recognized mastery of his sub- 
ject, an evening teacher must be able to teach others 
what he knows. Methods in evening school teaching are 
a special problem, not only for teachers recruited from 
occupations, but also for those with pedagogical training 

*A third requirement, which is more than a personal attribute, is 
defined in the Committee Report, Appendix A, pp. 298-299. It is teach- 
ing ability as distinguished from giving of instruction in subject-matter. 
Teaching individuals is greater than, teaching subject-matter. 


recruited from other schools. Approach to the pupil must 
be on the basis of equal adulthood, yet the subject-matter 
must be taught by methods applicable to children and 
youths, to beginners often. To evening pupils elementary 
classes in subjects are frequently wholly new, and pupils 
are as inexperienced in the subjects as if they were chil- 
dren. This condition calls for the use of delicacy and tact 
in approach and methods. 

Personal Attributes Needed in Evening School Teachers 

Upon the evening school teacher's attitude toward his 
pupils depends to a large extent the success of his instruc- 
tion. The teacher's attitude may in itself make or break 
a class in a short time. Instances where this has happened 
negatively could be illustrated as well as those in which 
the results for the class were positive. 

Tact is an attribute greatly needed. A teacher must 
discover or at least sense individual differences (physi- 
cal, mental, environmental and social) and govern his 
approach to and relations with his pupils accordingly. 
A teacher, for instance, who in any way publicly centers 
attention upon a backward pupil, retiring by nature, has 
probably used poor judgment in approach to the pupil. 
He has handicapped himself and the pupil in question, 
even if the latter continues to attend the class. 

Leadership is an attribute likewise much needed. 
Pupils admire and respect mastery and command of the 
subject of instruction by a teacher. If he is a recognized 
leader in his occupational field (including teaching), and 
if he exerts leadership on the class literally makes the 
members work and strive to learn, progress and accom- 


plish his value as an evening school teacher is greatly 

Assurance is another attribute which every evening 
school teacher should possess. A teacher may not be a 
great personal leader, and yet if he has assurance in his 
mastery of his subject-matter and ability to teach others, 
he may be an excellent teacher. Pupils respect and seek 
to learn where there is assurance of mastery even if it is 
not voluble or emphasized by aggressive leadership. 

A fourth attribute needed is sympathy, or rather, 
human understanding. This does not, of course, mean 
maudlin sympathy. The teacher who can exhibit quali- 
ties of human understanding, however, such that pupils 
care to confide problems of occupational, economic, home 
and even social life to him, has a strong drawing power 
on such pupils. When a pupil lingers after class "to ask 
a question" the teacher has a golden opportunity which 
he should recognize and which he may later capitalize in 
pupil interest. 

Patience is another valuable attribute in evening 
school teachers. Many pupils have been separated from 
formal education and the learning process for a consider- 
able length of time. Some, possibly have had only a small 
amount of it in the sum total of their experiences. Other 
pupils will have what is said by some educators to be a 
handicap, namely, age. It is believed by some that learn- 
ing becomes more difficult with adulthood and middle age. 
This assertion is challenged by others as not being of 
general application. Be that as it may, there is ample 
evidence that patience is needed in evening school teach- 
ers in order that they may properly assist those pupils 
who are slow in again beginning the learning process. 


There is also a frequently reappearing thought that the 
teacher must overcome, namely, that because the pupils 
are adults as the teachers are, they should know many 
of the elementary facts of any subject. 

Superiority is a detracting characteristic, a handicap, 
and usually a bar to successful evening school teaching. 
Pupils will not enroll in or attend classes when this per- 
sonal characteristic of teachers becomes known or appar- 
ent. Teachers brought into evening school teaching from 
professional fields particularly need to be analyzed for 
this human weakness. The writer recalls vividly two 
classes which disintegrated rapidly because of this atti- 
tude in the teachers, excellent * as they were otherwise. 
Enrolment in another class, he recalls, was again and 
again objected to or pointedly refused by pupils because 
of the reputation of the teacher. The feeling of superior- 
ity is a weakness which may be overcome by some, but 
it must be recognized early in the evening teaching experi- 
ence if the class is to survive. 

Importance of the Individual in Evening Schools 

In decades past only selected pupils went to school. 
There were no large numbers grouped together even in 
the larger cities of the country. With the growth of cities 
and industries came mass production and mass education. 
The individual was lost in the industrial and social life, 
and in the schools. This highly unsatisfactory condition, 
so far as education is concerned, was the direct cause of 
a great reform. 

Recognition of individual differences resulted from it. 
In education the individual has been lifted out of the 


masses. In progressive school systems lie now receives 
more personal attention than many of those did who went 
to school formerly, when only a selected few were assem- 
bled in relatively small groups. Teachers who cannot 
recognize individual differences under various classifica- 
tions are hopelessly out of touch with one of the most 
beneficial trends in modern education. 

Evening school teachers need to recognize individual 
differences and govern their instruction by them just as 
much as any other group of teachers should. It seems 
sometimes as if the problem of individual differences is 
greater in the evening school than in any other educa- 
tional organization. In this school a greater range in age 
exists. There are varying amounts of educational and 
occupational background. Greater varieties of life experi- 
ences of all kinds obtain than could be found in any other 
type of school. The basic purpose of evening schools, that 
of assisting every one in whatever educational field he 
may recognize deficiencies, also contributes to the impor- 
tance of the problem of individual differences. This prin- 
ciple in education should be stressed in any type of 
teacher-training program for evening school teachers. 

Sources of Evening School Teachers 

There are three chief sources of evening school teach- 
ers, namely, day-school teachers, former teachers and 
leaders and specialists in a variety of occupational fields. 
Teachers from each of these sources generally have well- 
defined strengths and weaknesses. Each type usually may 
be employed in one subject or kind of subject better than 
in others. 


Day-school teachers have two specific weaknesses when 
employed as evening school teachers. Many do not possess 
the physical stamina to enter and conduct an evening 
class with the requisite amount of enthusiasm and spirit. 
Pew day-school teachers have had training in evening 
school methods and approach to pupils. At times, too, 
aggressive assurance of mastery of subject-matter is not 
evidenced enough to make them wholly acceptable to 

Day-school teachers have some valuable abilities when 
employed as evening school teachers which should be 
recognized. Usually they have been trained in and have 
had experience with teaching methods, even if not with 
those particularly adapted to adult education. They 
probably have had training and experience in establish- 
ing aims, selecting subject-matter from social needs, and 
organizing teaching materials. They recognize the value 
of methods and of class organization and conduct, and 
are in some measure adaptable to changes. 

Day-school teachers who are strong physically and 
from the instructional standpoint are undoubtedly excel- 
lent teachers of elementary school and high school acade- 
mic subjects. They are probably the best that can be 
secured for such classes, as they are familiar with late 
educational developments, such as recognition of indi- 
vidual differences. Included among day-school teachers 
are those in private schools of various kinds. Day-school 
teachers may be the best available instructors for some 
home-making commercial subjects and for art and phys- 
ical education. Manual arts teachers sometimes make 
excellent teachers in such related subjects as mathe- 
matics, drawing and trade science. Industrial and agri- 

Mechanical Drafting as a Door of Opportunity (Duluth) 

Painter's Apprentices Learning to Decorate (McKinley Night School, 

St. Louis) 


cultural vocational teachers in day classes or schools make 
the best possible teachers for basic courses in these sub- 
jects in evening schools. 

Former teachers may be in positions where they have 
considerable physical strength to devote to evening 
school work. They have had training and experience in 
the principles underlying good teaching. Usually they 
have maturity, which is of decided value with adult 

Frequently former teachers have had no specialized 
training or experience in methods of teaching adult 
pupils. If they have allowed their pedagogical training 
to lapse, a brushing-up is essential. They should not be 
permitted to feel that they are efficient enough for teach- 
ing evening school work if they have allowed their study 
of pedagogy to lapse. 

Former home-making teachers who have married and 
established homes usually make excellent teachers for 
evening home-making classes. At times very satisfac- 
tory teachers for grade school subjects, and for such spe- 
cial high school subjects as public speaking and com- 
merce, may be secured from outside the day faculty. 

Leaders and specialists in occupational fields of all 
kinds are frequently called in as teachers of vocational 
subjects. Their chief weakness lies in their not having 
had pedagogical training of any kind. Some have the feel- 
ing that such training is almost unnecessary. It fre- 
quently appears difficult to them. They do not visualize 
immediately the problems of teaching many pupils at one 
time, as any training they may have given previously 
has been to individuals only. Evening school teaching 
may be a burden on their physical strength, but this is 


offset somewhat by the fact that such teaching is a 
change from their day employment. 

The great strength of occupational leaders and spe- 
cialists as teachers lies in the intensely practical nature 
of their training and the atmosphere in and conditions 
under which they do their daily work. All of their inter- 
est up to the time of employment as teachers has been 
in the subject-matter of their occupations. Of course they 
are better masters of it than they would be if their efforts 
had been divided between subject-matter and pedagogy. 

Teachers selected from outside the ranks of day teach- 
ers and former teachers are employed almost solely for 
trade and industrial, home-making, commercial, agricul- 
tural and other vocational subjects. Sometimes they are 
employed to teach special or highly technical subjects 
rather than elementary or basic subjects. These latter are 
usually taught better by day vocational teachers because 
the latter have specialized in this part of their field to a 
great extent. This, however, is not always true. 

Vocational classes, including those subsidized, need not 
be taught in school buildings, and evening offerings may 
include some for which there is no teacher in the day 
faculty. It is apparent that many vocational education 
needs can be met in the evening school organization 
which are usually not possible or warranted in day- 
schools, because of plant, equipment, teachers and insuffi- 
cient enrolment. 

Training of Evening School Teachers 

Evening school teaching is a part-time position, for 
evening education is one form of part-time education. 


Unfortunately pupils and classes cannot be rotated and 
assigned to different hours and days permitting of full- 
time teaching for the instructors, as is possible in day 
part-time schools. Special teachers are required, and yet 
they cannot be employed solely for evening school teach- 
ing. They must have other part-time or full-time work. 

There appears to be no remedy for this condition. The 
classifying of evening teaching as a minor activity is 
apparent by its omission in the preparation of regular 
teachers for grades and high schools. This is not to be 
wondered at, for only a small percentage of day teachers 
find employment in evening schools. 

Some vocational teachers, particularly in home-making 
and trade and industrial subjects, receive in their orig- 
inal training some instruction in evening teaching. This 
is undoubtedly because of the subsidies given these types 
of work by the federal government under the Smith- 
Hughes Act. Usually any such teacher-training appears 
incidentally rather than in well-defined courses for 
evening teaching. 

It should be apparent that nearly all of the special 
training of evening teachers must be done immediately 
preceding employment or during the period of service in 
teaching. In many instances it falls into the latter period. 
This training is usually in short and intensive periods. 

While all such teacher- training in service may be some- 
what tardy, it has one decided advantage in that teachers 
may make immediate practical application of the instruc- 
tion they receive. 

All evening teachers do not need the same amount or 
as wide a range of instruction in pedagogy as some do. 
Most teachers of Americanization and grade and high 


school subjects (and some vocational subjects), for in- 
stance, need particularly to be instructed in adapting 
subject-matter to adults, even though it is primary in 
character. They need to be taught how to make the 
approach to adults in class organization and operation, 
and in methods of instruction. Most of the other peda- 
gogical requirements they will have mastered in connec- 
tion with their day-school training and experience. 

Special vocational teachers in occupational fields, 
called in to teach evening vocational classes, are the ones 
who need the greatest amount of assistance and require 
the greatest range and amount of pedagogical training. 
They know their subject-matter well, but do not know 
how to organize it for instructional purposes. They may 
be able to "tell" one about the work, but they generally 
lack the ability to organize and conduct a class, and to 
give well-planned instruction to an entire class. Most of 
the class, in such instances, are neglected unless the 
teacher has had pedagogical training. 

With such instructors, training in teaching must be 
quite extensive in the range of principles of education 
studied. However, only basic essentials can be included. 
The study must be intensive because of time and need. 
Repeated periods of instruction are necessary because too 
great a variety of material cannot be assimilated at one 
time, and the time available for this instruction in any 
term is not great. Some of the most basic general and 
special divisions of pedagogical training which should be 
covered include the following: 

Aims, values and growth of adult education, particularly in 
evening schools 


Class-room methods of instruction class, group and indi- 

Selection and organization of subject-matter 

Organization of courses of study 

Organization and conduct of classes 

Lesson-plans and demonstrations 

Approach to adult pupils, including adaptation of subject- 

Recognition of individual differences and adjustment of 
instruction to them 

Where teacher-training in service is inaugurated, it is 
best accomplished through unified groups. These groups 
may be classified according to subjects, departments or 
individual needs. It is deadening to force teachers to 
attend classes wherein much of the subject-matter has 
already been studied by them. For some purposes all 
home-making teachers might be brought together for 
instruction. It would be foolish, however, to bring both 
practical home-makers and teachers' college graduates 
together for extensive training in lesson-plans. In small 
organizations the grouping and instruction of teachers 
according to teaching needs rather than subject-matter 
eliminates duplication of effort of both the teachers and 
the teacher-trainer. 

Special Requirements Affecting Some 
Evening Teachers 

Classes for which State aid or State and federal aid are 
given have established minimum standards. Among these 
are teacher's qualifications, which include among other 
things: training, certificates held and, in vocational sub- 


jects, practical experience. To discuss the qualifications of 
various types of teachers who come under the provisions 
of the federal Smith-Hughes Act would not be of great 
value here. State regulations for State-aided classes vary 
greatly. The evening school official should investigate 
teacher qualifications established by these two political 
units if he intends to offer classes for which partial re- 
imbursement is to be requested. 

Rating Evening School Teachers 

The writer can give no definite rating scale for evening 
school teachers. However, in a list of qualifications which 
might be foremost in mind when one judges or selects an 
evening school teacher, the following stand out con- 

Ability to "hold" the class 

Giving instruction on level of pupils' abilities, education, 
and intelligence 

Sympathetic attitude toward adult pupils and their prob- 

Mastery of subject-matter 

Ability to adapt teaching methods to adults 

Promptness and business-like attitude 

Efficiency in making records and reports 

Willingness to cooperate in a program of training in service 

Willingness to work on lesson-plans, demonstrations, in- 
struction sheets, courses of study and the like 

Personal appearance (not always the usually expected 
standard of all-day teachers) 

Physical strength 



1. Why should the training of evening school teachers in- 
clude in its scope many phases that are the same as those 
included for regular teachers? 

2. What aspects of teaching, not found in the preparation 
of day-school teachers, need particular emphasis in 
training evening school teachers? 

3. Explain the importance of short, intensive and some- 
times repeated periods of training when it is given during 
teaching service. 

4. Explain why tact, leadership, assurance, human under- 
standing and patience are personal attributes particularly 
needed in evening school teachers. 

5. Why is the recognition of the individual in evening edu- 
cation just as essential, if not more so, as in elementary 
and secondary education? 

6. What factors constitute the chief abilities and weaknesses 
of day-school teachers, former teachers and occupational 
specialists as evening school teachers? 

7. What principles or divisions of pedagogical training, es- 
sential to all teachers, are particularly necessary in the 
training of evening school teachers? 


Agricultural Education, Bulletin No. 13, Federal Board for 
Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.). 

Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, 1918, Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. Out of print. 

Home Economics Education, Bulletin No. 28, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education. 

Lynn, J. V., and Others, The Evening Class and Its Teacher, 
Special Series No. 1, State Board of Vocational Educa- 
tion (Des Moines, Iowa). 


Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 
Kansas) . 

Trade and Industrial Education, Bulletin No. 17, Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. 



Special aid or subsidies granted to specific types of 
classes may prove to be of great assistance in evening 
schools. This is especially true during the period of or- 
ganization and promotion of this form of education. It 
may make possible the organization and operation of 
classes of a character which would not be possible other- 
wise. An evening school official should be familiar with 
these forms of aid and take every advantage of them in 
promoting evening school instruction and in lightening 
the local burden of taxation wherever possible. Sub- 
sidies for special classes fall into two groups State aid 
alone, and State and federal aid combined. 

'State Aid 

State aid is common. Most states recognize education 
as a State-wide problem as well as a local one. This rec- 
ognition of and interest in education often takes the form 
of financial aid, derived from general taxation and other 
sources of State wealth. It is distributed under various 
conditions and for various purposes. 

State aid for evening school instruction frequently 
embraces citizenship and general English classes in Amer- 


work in some States. All possible sources of aid should be 
investigated when evening school plans are being made in 
order that pupil, teacher, content, time and other re- 
quirements may be met if at all feasible* 

State aid is secured through State departments of edu- 
cation. Generally plans for the organization of classes 
under specific requirements and with expectation of re- 
ceiving aid should be made known to the State education 
department before classes begin. Teachers must be certi- 
fied, and reports must be made by the local official. 
Inspection by a State supervisor usually takes place. Aid 
most often takes the form of a reimbursement of teachers' 
salaries expended. 

State and Federal Aid Combined 

The federal government promotes vocational educa- 
tion. The federal government was convinced in 1917 of 
the desirability of promoting vocational education in the 
United States. This branch of education had made nota- 
ble progress in a few States. The Word War, restricted 
immigration, machine production and an almost complete 
breakdown of apprenticeship were factors which forced 
attention upon the problem of training workers in occu- 
pations requiring education of less than college grade. 
The national Smith-Hughes Act resulted. It provides aid 
for three occupational divisions; trades and industries, 
agriculture and home-making; and teacher- training. 
Classes in all of these divisions may be formed in evening 
schools, and reimbursement received for them. 

The Smith-Hughes Act. The Smith-Hughes Act is a 
cooperative enterprise between the federal and State 


governments. It binds no State until the State through 
its legislature accepts the provisions of the Act. Desig- 
nated sums of money are allotted to the various States. 
These sums are available provided the States local com- 
munities add similar amounts to this fund to be used 
with it. This has been referred to as "matching dollar for 
dollar." The State and federal funds are kept separate in 
all cases, however. 

Federal funds are allotted to each State on the basis 
of population: those for agricultural education on the 
basis of the State rural population compared with the 
total rural population of the country; trade and indus- 
trial and home economics funds, on the basis of urban 

Federal funds allotted to each State need not neces- 
sarily be matched by State funds. The law specifically 
requires that they be matched by State or local funds or 
both. Obviously, therefore, it is not necessary for a State 
to add funds to those provided by the federal board for 
vocational education for evening school work or any 
other type of vocational education so long as an equal 
amount is provided in the local community. It is, how- 
ever, the practice in most States that the legislature guar- 
antees a State fund equal to the federal allotment. 

The Smith-Hughes Act was passed to promote voca- 
tional education because the federal government believed 
that such training of many young workers was vitally 
necessary and for the good of the nation as a whole. 

In entering into this field of education the federal gov- 
ernment has not attempted to meddle and dictate in State 
affairs. Acceptance, as was noted, lies with each State. 
The general requirements established throw most of the 


responsibility for organization, supervision and adminis- 
tration directly upon State officials. Final approval must 
be given by the federal authorities. Undoubtedly a time 
will come when vocational education will be so firmly 
established that it will continue to grow and function 
without the incentive of special aid. There are already 
evidences of this. 

Basis of aid. The federal allotment for agriculture is 
made in a specific number of dollars and cents. The allot- 
ment for trades and industries and home economics is 
made in one lump sum, specified in dollars and cents. 
There is no specified division made by the Federal Board 
between these last two fields, except to state that not 
more than 20 per cent of the fund for trade and industry 
and home economics may be used for home economics. 
If the full 20 per cent is not used, the surplus remaining 
may be used in the trade and industrial field. There is 
one further limitation having to do with part-time educa- 
tion. The federal law requires that 33 per cent of the total 
fund for trades and industries and home economics, if 
expended at all, must be expended for part-time educa- 

Aid granted to local communities for vocational classes 
certified by State supervisors is on the basis of teachers' 
salaries. The federal law provides for reimbursement up 
to 50 per cent of the salaries for instruction. Reimburse- 
ment cannot exceed 50 per cent, but it may be less as 
funds or other limitations demand. 

States receive allotments from the federal government 
quarterly. In some States it is a practice not to make 
reimbursements to local communities until the end of the 
school year. In other States, however, especially in eve- 


ning school work and rehabilitation, reimbursement is 
made oftener. 

Certified classes are of various types and are in each 
of the three fields named. Federal funds may not be 
transferred from one of the three subsidized fields to 
another. Unused federal funds revert to the national 
government each year. 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education. This 
independent board administers the Smith-Hughes voca- 
tional education act. It promotes vocational education in 
the regions into which the nation is divided. It conducts 
conferences for teacher-trainers. It also publishes bul- 
letins dealing with the promotion, organization and con- 
duct of the vocational classes subsidized. 

State organization. Any State taking advantage of 
the Smith-Hughes Act is required to designate a State 
Board for the Administration of Vocational Education. 
Sometimes an existing board is thus designated and given 
the added responsibility for vocational education. In 
other instances new boards have been created. The chief 
executive officer of the State Board is the one with whom 
the Federal Board deals. A State Director for Vocational 
Education is also designated. He may also be the execu- 
tive officer of the State Board. Any number of State 
supervisors may be appointed in the three fields of voca- 
tional education subsidized. The latter are the connecting 
liilks between local school officials and the State and Fed- 
eral boards. It is through them that evening school offi- 
cers secure assistance and guidance if needed in the 
organization and conduct of subsidized vocational classes. 

Evening industrial classes. Evening industrial classes 
are but one type permitted under those of the trade and 


industrial classification. The others are all-day unit trade, 
general industrial and three forms of part-time classes, 
namely, trade extension, trade preparatory (often ques- 
tioned) and general continuation. 

The evening industrial classes must be of the trade 
extension type. They must supplement the daily employ- 
ment of the pupils. This does not indicate that trade 
preparatory training has no place in evening schools. 
Generally trade preparatory training precedes first em- 
ployment. It is usually for younger pupils than those who 
enroll in evening schools. Instances occur, however, where 
pupils wish to secure training in another trade than that 
in which they are employed. Such training is of a trade 
preparatory character for them. For workers who wish to 
change to another trade or industrial occupation, trade 
preparatory classes are just as legitimate as trade exten- 
sion classes, though no aid is given for the former. The 
evening school instruction, it should be recalled, is 
planned primarily for adults, not for youths. 

Content of evening industrial classes. The Smith- 
Hughes Act recognizes and provides reimbursement for 
two types of evening trade and industrial classes accord- 
ing to content, namely, shop classes and classes in related 
subjects. Federal literature also mentions non-vocational 
or academic studies. In some types of classes, particularly 
all-day unit trade and part-time classes, time schedules 
outlined provide for academic subjects, chiefly English, 
health and citizenship. The academic classes are not 
under the jurisdiction of State or federal boards, and 
salaries for the teachers are not subject to reimburse- 

Subsidized evening industrial classes are, therefore, of 


the shop or related subjects types. Shop subjects deal 
with tools, machines, materials and processes. Related 
subjects classes might be called related technical subjects. 
These are science, mathematics, drawing and shop Eng- 
lish. The latter centers attention chiefly on shop terms. 
Related subjects may be thought of as trade knowledge 
or technical information, in contrast with skill in shop 
subjects. The mastery of related subjects is highly essen- 
tial to advancement in industrial vocations. 

Local officials, and the requirements of the Smith- 
Hughes Act. Local officials should be generally familiar 
with the national vocational education law. They should 
be more closely familiar with the plan of their respective 
States for administering the law. In meeting State and 
federal requirements, local evening school officials are 
particularly concerned with the following: 

Buildings and equipment 

Teacher selection, teacher-training and teacher certification 

Classification of pupils 

Subject-matter of courses 

State inspection the State supervisor 

Reports to the State Board for Vocational Education 


General provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act. Gen- 
eral provisions of the federal vocational education law 
which apply to all types of classes in the three divisions 
of vocational education subsidized include the following: 

Vocational classes must be under public supervision and 


Instruction must be of less than college grade. 
Pupils must be over fourteen years of age. 


All pupils must be physically and mentally fit to profit by 

the instruction offered. 
Federal funds must be matched by State funds, local funds 

or a combination of the two. 
Federal aid is for reimbursement of salaries only. 
The State plan must be approved by the Federal Board for 

Vocational Education. 
Each State must pass an enabling act to receive the federal 


A State Board for Vocational Education must be designated. 
The State treasurer must be designated the custodian of 


All hours are sixty-minute hours. 
Aid is for promotion. 

Approval of plant and equipment rests with the State Board. 
All teachers must be certified. 

Local schools or classes are supervised by State officers sub- 
ject to final approval of the Federal Board for Vocational 


Specific requirements governing evening industrial 
classes. Because of their variety and extent, evening 
industrial classes are taken as a sample for an analysis of 
specific requirements. The requirements outlined below 
are indicative of other industrial class requirements, and 
also of evening classes in the other two occupational 

The minimum entrance age is sixteen two years more than 
the general minimum age of other Smith-Hughes classes. 

Pupils must have selected and entered a trade. " 

The purpose of the instruction is to supplement daily em- 

The classes may be of either the shop or the related subjects 

The lengths of courses may vary (the short-unit division 
being preferred) . 


The subject-matter of courses must be inherent in the trade 

taught, and must enlarge trade skill or knowledge. 
The organization of content and methods of instruction is 

not fixed. 
The equipment should approximate that used in the trade 

or industrial occupation taught. 
Evening industrial classes are not restricted in regard to the 

size of the city. 

The requirements for teachers in shop and related sub- 
jects vary in different States. A tendency to increase 
requirements is apparent. Trade experience beyond ap- 
prenticeship is an essential requirement for shop teachers, 
and technical training beyond high school and trade con- 
tacts are important requirements of related subjects 
teachers. The latest individual State plans should be 
studied for specific requirements. 


1. Explain how special aid, State or State and federal, may 
be of particular value in promoting evening school classes 
in the subjects subsidized. 

2. What basic differences exist between evening industrial 
classes classified as preparatory and those classified as 

3. What are some of the conditions surrounding the secur- 
ing of Smith-Hughes or solely State aid with which an 
evening school official should familiarize himself before 
making detailed plans for classes? 

4. Secure a State plan for your State and list the specific re- 
quirements governing evening agricultural and home- 
making classes with which a local evening school official 
should be familiar. 



Agricultural Education (Organization and Administration), 
Bulletin No. 13, Federal Board for Vocational Educa- 
tion (Washington, D. C.). 

Agricultural Evening Schools, Bulletin No. 89, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education. 

Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education. Out of print. 

Statement of Policies, Bulletin No. 1, Revised December, 1926, 
Federal Board for Vocational Education. 

Home Economics Education (Organization and Administra- 
tion), Bulletin No. 28, Federal Board for Vocational 

"State Plans" for administering provisions of the Smith- 
Hughes Law in the various states, State departments 
of education. 

Trade and Industrial Education (Organization and Adminis- 
tration) , Bulletin No. 17, Federal Board for Vocational 



Importance of Teacher's Attitude 

A study of evening school pupils reveals the fact that 
methods of instruction must be particularly adapted to 
them, and to their attitudes and needs. Methods differ 
from these employed with elementary and high school 
pupils chiefly in the matter of approach. A survey reveals 
certain basic facts about pupils which make approach, on 
a basis of adult equality, an essential element in methods 
of instruction. By this is not meant equality in the mas- 
tery of subject-matter. Rather does it mean community 
of interest, spirit and desire to improve. Pupils should be 
thought of as working with rather than under the teacher. 

Analysis of Evening School Pupils 

The pupils in evening schools are for the most part 
serious-minded. They come with a purpose. All pupils 
are above the compulsory age for all day-school attend- 
ance. Many of them are in middle age, and there are 
some who are considerably past middle age. 

The pupils come from all types of homes in the com- 
munity. They come from homes that are rich, comfort- 
able or poor; from homes of broad or meager intellectual 



attainments; in fact, from homes representing all degrees 
of social, economic, moral and intellectual life. The pupils 
in a cosmopolitan evening school come from every type 
of human occupation, from domestic service to banking. 1 

Evening school pupils come chiefly because they wish 
to make up some educational deficiency, to secure spe- 
cialized occupational training, to broaden themselves cul- 
turally or prevent intellectual stagnation and in some in- 
stances to develop or retain good health. A few come out 
of curiosity and because friends come. The vast majority 
come expecting to put forth effort and achieve well-de- 
fined results. 

The foregoing paragraphs have analyzed roughly the 
composite evening pupil. The results of this analysis in- 
dicate the importance of the teacher's attitude and ap- 
proach toward evening pupils in the teaching methods he 
employs. In addition, for particular pupils, he must make 
such adjustments as individual differences require. 

Engendering Feeling of Accomplishment 

Another factor in connection with methods which 
should be kept in mind constantly by evening school 
teachers is that of making pupils feel that they are ac- 
complishing something. This is extremely important the 
first night or two, but it is also of considerable importance 
at every lesson. Each lesson should bring a feeling of 
progress toward a well-defined goal. This can be accom- 
plished in a simple manner. Each meeting of every class 

x The significance of individual differences of evening pupils as they 
affect subject-matter, organization and methods is concretely outlined 
in Appendix A, pp. 325-326. 


should have a class lesson included in it. Each member 
will then be reached by instruction in new subject-mat- 
ter. A review of the progress made at that session of the 
class, given near the close of the period, doubly insures 
the producing of a feeling of accomplishment in each 

Interest in work and accomplishment are frequently 
closely associated. If interest can be developed and held, 
accomplishment usually follows. A brief discussion of 
interest and its drawing power in the matter of attend- 
ance will be found on pages 131-133. 

Methods in Practical Subjects 

The common methods of instruction are usually re- 
ferred to as the imitative, project and inventive methods. 
All three have pronounced strengths and weaknesses. 
Usually more than one method should be employed dur- 
ing the term of the class. 

The imitative method. This is particularly adapted 
to all practical or vocational subjects. It is also the best 
possible method for the first or basic instruction of a 
class. The practical subjects always include a combina- 
tion of mental and manipulative work. For more people 
are eye-minded than ear-minded. Eye-minded people 
grasp instruction more quickly through the sense of sight 
than through hearing. Because much emphasis is placed 
upon manipulations in vocational subjects, the imitative 
method learning through seeing is of peculiar value. 
This fact explains the relative importance placed upon 
demonstrations in the practical subjects. 

The first instruction in any class is usually difficult and 


always important and basic for pupils. Frequently it is 
wholly new. The use of the imitative method produces 
results more quickly, surely and effectively than others 
at this point. It is particularly a method for beginners. 
One can show a pupil how to make buttonholes in a gar- 
ment in a small fraction of the time and with much better 
results than through verbally describing how it is done. 

The imitative method is the method of industry. 
Through its use accomplishment is quickened. For many 
vocational classes it may be judged rightly as being a 
basic method of instruction. Pupils in occupational train- 
ing classes are usually satisfied to be taught solely by this 
method. In fairness to them and their continued develop- 
ment, however, another method which develops initia- 
tive, responsibility and constructive thinking should also 
be employed to some extent. 

Instruction sheets. No consideration of the subject 
of methods of instruction in practical or vocational sub- 
jects is complete to-day without some mention of instruc- 
tion sheets. Such a discussion fits best into the general 
subject of the imitative method of instruction. Instruc- 
tion sheets can be made valuable aids to a vocational 
teacher. They are specific in character. They can be justi- 
fied where habituated, manipulative skills are the chief 
aim of the instruction. Their use may assist in intensive 
instruction and rapid learning of standardized vocational 

The terminology employed in connection with instruc- 
tion sheets frequently has been misleading. They have 
now come to be recognized by many as being of two 
principal types. So-called job sheets provide instruction 
for making an entire object, involving a number of unit 


and basic processes. Process or operation sheets, on the 
other hand, center instruction on single important voca- 
tional processes of occupations taught. Properly taught, 
mastery of these fundamental processes should give the 
learner a background of basic training, the units of which 
can be applied to different jobs of problems or articles. 
This latter achievement, however, rests upon added train- 
ing of a kind designed to teach the learner how to plan 
or organize different processes in such relationships to 
each other that the thing desired will ultimately evolve. 

Instruction sheets cannot and should not supplant the 
instruction of the teacher. Their only justifiable use is to 
supplement it. A weak vocational teacher, or a new 
teacher in his first evening school work, possibly may do 
well to rely heavily on instruction sheets. The chances of 
pupil mastery of the minimum essentials of skill and 
knowledge are probably increased in such instances 
through their use. The related technical information, and 
training and practice in problem-solving, will be greatly 
minimized or almost omitted in such cases, however. 

A strong vocational teacher may use .instruction sheets 
to supplement his instruction, usuaEy that in which he 
employs the imitative method. Minimum essentials can 
be taught without such sheets. Through their use, how- 
ever, as reference instruction, some of the teacher's time, 
usually devoted to repeated individual instruction, may 
be used otherwise. Such time may then be applied in pro- 
viding for individual differences both in interest and 
ability, in providing class instruction in important related 
technical subject-matter, and in teaching problem-solv- 
ing through the planning of process or operation pro- 
cedures which will bring about desired results. Instruc- 


tion sheets, therefore, may assist both strong and weak 
vocational teachers (in different ways), but they have 
the constant weakness to be guarded against of tending 
to make instruction narrow just the bare fruit without 
the flower. 

Excellent instruction sheets have been prepared in 
some basic jobs and processes in a number of industrial 
occupations. Some have been published. Frequently self- 
made or "home-made" sheets are much more desirable, 
and at times they are the only type available. Training 
in their construction is quite as essential (if they are to 
be prepared) as instruction in the methods of process, 
job and trade analyses. 

A locally prepared job sheet is shown below. The 
original was mimeographed in the school office. 

Madison, Wisconsin 

Mr. Bechtold 


JOB SPECIFICATIONS: -Tin cup It o 'be made with 
1/8 11 double-seam "bottom.^ Top edge to "be 
reinforced with #14 wire. Cup to be 4" in 
diameter and 3" deep when finished, with 
1/8" grooved seam. To be made of "bright tin. 


Rule, awl, snips, bar folder, wiring ma- 
chine, "burring machine, double seaming 
stake, mallet, set ting- down hammer, square 
stake, dividers, -soldering equipment* 


Bright tin, solder, flux. 



1. Lay out, notch and form up the body of 
cup. Pay particular attention to proper 
notching and extra allowance for bottom 

2. Using the small burring machine, burr out 
a 1/8" flange on body of cup at right an- 
gles to the body. 

3. Measure the diameter of the cup including 
the flange and cut bottom 3/16" larger in 

4. Burr up the bottom, using a trifle small- 
er burr than on body of cup. 

5. Put bottom on to body and "set down" edge 
of the bottom over the flange with the 
peen of the setting-down hammer. Pay 
particular attention to getting the in- 
side edge down tight and smooth. 

6. Double seam bottom to body. 

NOTE: Place over double seaming stake. 
Hold firmly on to stake with the 
left hand and turning slowly strike 
with mallet (starting at the seam), 
bending the edge down at an angle 
of about 45 the first revolution 
of the cup. Complete the operation 
by malleting the seam down tight 
and smooth. 

7. Lay out handle for cup, using 1/8" double 
hem on each side. 

8. Form handle over stake by hand. 

9. Solder all seams inside of cup and solder 
handle in position over the grooved seam. 


How wide a burr can you turn on tin-plate 
with a small burring machine? 

What is "coke 11 tin commonly called? 

How many cups of the size given in the 


specifications can be made from one sheet of 
20x28 tin-plate? 

A similar type of process or operation sheet, also mime- 
ographed, and including illustrations, is made up like the 

Madison, Wisconsin 

Trade and Industry Department 
Measuring Fred Todd, 

with Instructor. 


Machine Shop 

Setting an "Outside Caliper 
to a Steel Scale 

The accompanying figure 
shows a method of setting an 
outside caliper to a steel 
scale. The scale is held in 
the left hand and the cali- 
per in the right hand. The 
caliper is supported by the 
thumb of the left hand and 
the adjustment is made with 
the thumb and first finger " 
of the right hand. 

Correct Position of the 
Caliper in Measuring 
the Diameter of a 

In the accompanying 
figure is shown the proper 
application of the outside 
caliper when measuring the 
diameter of a cylinder or a 
shaft. Note that the dotted 
line connecting points A 


and B, where the callper 
comes in contact with the 
work, is at right angles to 
the center line of the work, 
and at a point where the 
true diameter of the cylin- 
der can "be measured. When 
the caliper measures proper- 
ly, it should just slip over 
the shaft of its own weight. 
Never force a caliper. It 
will spring and the measure- 
ment will not "be accurate. 

Setting" "an Inside Caliper to 
a Scale 

To set an inside caliper 
for a definite dimension, 
place the end of the scale 
against a flat surface and 
the end of the caliper at 
the edge and end of the 
scale. Adjust the other end 
of the caliper to the re- 
quired dimension. 

A type of sheet known as an information sheet is now 
being attempted in some schools. Its character is indi- 
cated by its name. To some it seems very questionable 
whether related technical information can generally be 
provided as successfully through the medium of instruc- 
tion sheets as it can through direct teaching. 

The project method. This method has two great 
values one the developing and holding of interest so 
essential to progress in any educational endeavor, the 
other the development of initiative and practice in con- 
structive reasoning. So far as vocational teaching is con- 
cerned, a project may be thought of as: 


Recognizing a need and desiring to fill it 
Making plans to fill the need 
Constructing the thing desired or filling the need 
Making a judgment of the results 

Some will ar'gue that a true project must be wholly 
self-initiated. In that case a project scarcely could be 
inaugurated under any school conditions. Be that as it 
may, most desirable results can be achieved by a skilful 
teacher when he guides the selection of something to 
make, and gets the pupils not only to accept his guidance 
but to adopt the work (the project) as if they had 
initiated it. The project may be conducted through the 
medium of the class, of groups or of the individual. Each 
pupil may do similar work and receive the same instruc- 
tion. A single project may be carried on also through 
groups or the entire class ; wherein a number of pupils do 
different parts of the work. The project method of in- 
struction as here conceived is applicable to the method 
of free pupil selection of work, or selection from a group 
of problems involving similar basic instruction. 

Through the project method of instruction the teacher 
guides, suggests and makes references to source material 
Which will assist the pupil in the work he is planning or, 
later, executing. The teacher gives direct instruction only 
when no other means is possible. In this way greater 
responsibility is placed upon the pupil, greater initiative 
is required and results in constructive thinking or train- 
ing in the methods of reasoning are greater than through 
teacher instruction alone. The value of a method which 
develops initiative and methods of reasoning without too 
great a sacrifice of time should be apparent in its applica- 
tion to evening school pupils. It is an excellent method 


to follow the first basic instruction through the imitative 

The project method usually requires more skilful teach- 
ing than the imitative method. The teacher must be sup- 
plied with much reference material and many helps for 
the pupils. He must be able to lay out his work so that 
pupils can be assisted in discovering that which is neces- 
sary for progress rather than being told it. 2 The project 
method of instruction is particularly adapted to agricul- 
tural education. 

The inventive method. This method of instruction 
has little or no place in practical subjects in evening 
schools. It requires much time, which is not often avail- 
able in this educational organization. The achievement of 
measurable results through its use is questionable. As a 
method of instruction it is more applicable to higher edu- 
cation. The very nature of evening pupils and their de- 
sires for the accomplishment of definite educational re- 
sults prohibit the use of the inventive method. 

The inventive method represents the opposite extreme 
from the imitative method in that pupils are permitted 
to investigate as they will, without teacher interference 
and with little or no formal instruction. The project 
method represents a middle ground with particular ad- 
vantages after a course of study has been under way for 
a time. 

Methods of selection of work. Vocational instruction 
takes place through the medium of physical articles made 
by the pupils. The selection of these is closely associated 
with some of the methods of instruction, as has been 

a The value of teaching through, problem-solving methods is ad- 
mirably outlined in Appendix A. 


noted. The methods of selection are four in number. 
These are: teacher selection, pupil selection, assisted or 
guided pupil selection and pupil selection from a group, 
all problems of which require similar instructions. 

Teacher selection is usually questionable. Through it 
the pupil's wishes are not taken into consideration. It is 
deadening to interest. It fits in particularly well with the 
imitative method of instruction. This method is best 
adapted to the beginning instruction of courses. At that 
time the subject-matter is new and pupils frequently have 
little conception of what they desire to make. Almost any 
work is acceptable to them because they have little basis 
for judgment. If they are interested in their work ; teacher 
selection of physical articles in many vocational subjects 
may continue almost indefinitely with the imitative 
method of instruction. 

Pupil selection of articles to be made finds little place 
in most fields of vocational education. It slows up the 
class work and requires too great an amount of indi- 
vidual instruction for the good of the class as a whole. 
This method of pupil selection is seldom used. 

Guided pupil selection of articles through which in- 
struction is given also finds little place in vocational sub- 
jects. However, it does represent a step in advance of 
selection by the pupil alone. Some restriction can be 
imposed upon the variety of articles or projects that are 
to be made and through which the instruction must be 

Pupil selection from groups of problems involving the 
same fundamental instruction represents about the only 
workable method of permitting some pupil choice in the 
selection of problems. In some instances this method of 


selection works well with the project method of instruc- 
tion. If a class proceeds in its work from step to step 
quite regularly, the group method of organizing material 
and then permitting pupil selection is an aid in providing 
interest and also supplementary work for rapid pupils. 
New applications of the same instruction are possible, 
and the class may be kept together on the basic class in- 
struction in this manner. 

For most types of vocational education, however, the 
imitative method of instruction and teacher selection of 
problems or pupil selection from groups of parallel prob- 
lems will be the dominating procedure. Interest is usually 
strong enough to carry adult pupils through training 
based on such educational procedure where it could not 
be sustained with younger day-school pupils who have 
not yet entered occupational life. 

Methods of occupational procedure. In vocational 
education classes another classification of methods is 
needed to distinguish between two types of occupational 
procedure. One type of method must always be guarded 
against when schools undertake such training. The actual 
occupational methods used in the best practices of each 
occupational group must be employed if the best results 
are to be obtained. There must be no obsolete, archaic, 
dabbling or amateurish methods of procedure. In indus- 
trial training it is the industrial method of quantity 
production and all that it involves, rather than the 
craftsman method that is required. In home-making, the 
instruction should be through full-size articles or work 
rather than through models and samples. In commercial 
classes, the adding machine is now used in place of the 
brain and pencil for adding columns of figures. 


Methods of Instruction in Academic Subjects 

The imitative method. This method was previously 
described as to nature and particular values in vocational 
subjects. It has a place in academic instruction also. It 
is not only of peculiar value as a beginning method for 
most courses but is particularly adapted to elementary 
studies. Even though the pupils in evening schools are 
youths and adults, their approach to many subjects is 
upon an elementary basis. This is especially true of the 
large numbers in elementary grade and Americanization 
subjects. In these subjects there is also imitation of 
sounds through hearing. In the above subjects the imita- 
tive method of instruction is just as important in even- 
ing schools as in day-schools. Such methods are strikingly 
apparent in the rapid and lasting results obtained in 
Americanization classes in English. 

The project method. This method, previously ex- 
plained, is particularly adapted to primary subjects as 
well as to those based upon handwork. For the former 
it is a method of motivation. Little application of it is 
possible in upper elementary grade and high school 
academic subjects. Neither is it as applicable with adults 
in primary subjects as it is with children. 

The inventive method. This method has sometimes 
been called the creative method. Individual work in 
academic subjects, involving research of an elementary- 
nature and reorganization of material in new forms, is 
an example of the ue of the creative method. Its use 
develops qualities and abilities in pupils which are not 
stimulated by the use of the imitative method. The in- 
ventive or creative method occupies much the same rela- 


tion to the imitative method in academic subjects that 
the project method does to the imitative method in voca- 
tional subjects. The writing of a theme in English; the 
writing of a term paper on the development of democ- 
racy in England, in history; or the organization of a 
window display in Latin, showing how many of our com- 
monly used words are derived or adopted from the Latin, 
together with pictorial illustrations, are examples of the 
employment of the inventive or creative method. It is 
particularly adapted to adults. 

The supervised study method. This method is at 
times particularly applicable because of the small amount 
of home study that can be expected of most evening 
pupils. The time of the class might be divided approxi- 
mately half and half between the supervised study and 
recitation. It is essential that the class work include a 
review and an adequate assignment of the following les- 
son, whether or not there is to be any home study. 

Supervised study does not mean that the teacher sits 
at the desk and waits for pupils to come for assistance. 
It means that he goes about from pupil to pupil to dis- 
cover individual needs and if necessary to give aid in how 
to study. It means giving assistance in discovering the 
important phases of an assignment. Such work is tire- 
some and requires patience and skill on the part of the 
teacher. Unless he is willing to undertake it whole- 
heartedly, the time might better be spent otherwise. 

The socialized recitation and discussion methods. 
These methods are particularly applicable to adult pupils. 
One is but an extension of the other. These methods are 
valuable supplements to whatever method of direct in- 
struction is given by the teacher. 


The question and answer method. This so-called 
method of instruction is a necessary part of any kind of 
class work. However, it is more a check on what has been 
learned than a teacher's method of instruction. Its weak- 
ness lies in its too extended use, and the supposition that 
it is teacher instruction. It can only lead to instruction 
either by the teacher or through class contribution. 

The lecture method. In some classes the lecture 
method of instruction, or a combination of lecture and 
class discussion, is the best method to pursue. Where 
textbooks are not available in academic classes or where 
it is not desirable to require their purchase, this method 
is particularly applicable. The writer has in mind a class 
in everyday law and business practice. It is intended for 
men and women in all walks of life, not particularly for 
business people. No single textbook is adapted to this 
specific course. To some the name has sounded formid- 
able. Many interested people have enrolled, however, 
when they discovered that they would not be required 
to recite, that the lecture was the chief medium of in- 
struction and that the purchase of books was not re- 

In practice each lesson develops into a teacher-guided 
class discussion with the asking of many questions. The 
teacher is an attorney who was formerly a teacher. 
Classes employing the lecture method should not be 
longer at the most than one or one and one-half hours. 

Methods in Arts and in Craft-work 

Classes in art subjects and craft-work rely largely 
upon the imitative method of instruction. The demon- 


stration is of great importance. Groups are frequently 
large, making class rather than group or individual in- 
struction necessary. This factor enhances the importance 
of the imitative method. 

Selection of individual work may be best made by the 
teacher at the beginning of a class. Partial pupil choice 
of work from groups of articles or from subjects for 
artistic work may be possible as the class advances. In 
some instances in craft- work, partial pupil choice at least 
is possible from the beginning. If there is opportunity 
for project work, it will undoubtedly be near the end of 
the course of study. 

Methods in Physical Education 

Recognition must be made of individual differences in 
physical education differences in interests and physical 
differences. Some ensemble work is possible, but division 
into groups is necessary if there is a considerable range 
in ages. Competitive games are possible both in large 
and small groups. These are essential if interest is to be 
maintained. Physical education must be much more than 
the physical culture of former years. The Y. M. C. A. 
type of physical education is particularly applicable to 
men's classes. 

In women's classes swimming, folk-dancing, drills, set- 
ting-up exercises and large-group games are desirable. 
Classes in reducing and upbuilding prove popular, but 
they must be supplemented by instructions to follow 
during the intervals between classes. Teachers must be 

Physical examinations are desirable if there is any 


doubt about the kind or amount of physical exercise an 
individual should indulge in. The cost of such an exam- 
ination should not be a school expense. 

If a school pool is to be used for swimming, a special 
physical examination should be insisted upon, conducted 
at the school. The expense of this might be borne by the 
school or provided for through a small assessment upon 
members. The school, city or county public health nurse 
may be available for such examinations for women's 

Methods of Reasoning 

The inductive and deductive methods of reasoning and 
combinations of the two are applicable to both voca- 
tional and academic subjects. Training and drill in the 
methods of reasoning are of vital importance, often more 
so than subject-matter so far as ultimate results are 
concerned. An understanding of the basic methods of 
reasoning, as in the socialized recitation and in discus- 
sion methods of conduct and instruction, is the common 
equipment of trained teachers. No extended discussion 
of methods of reasoning will be given, therefore. 

Types of Lesson Organization 

A lesson is instruction covering a specifically desig- 
nated body of subject-matter. There may be any num- 
ber of lessons during a class period. More than one lesson 
in a period is of particular advantage when the periods 
are long, as they generally are in evening schools. Lessons 
are designed to meet three conditions: the needs of the 
entire class, the needs of a group and the needs of an 


individual. All three types are essential if the best inter- 
ests of the class and teacher are to be served. The three 
methods are of particular importance in evening schools 
owing to the recognition of an attempt to meet individual 
needs, and because of the relative importance of voca- 
tional subjects. In the latter, particularly, it is possible to 
gather groups together which need similar instruction. 

Class instruction. Class instruction reaches or should 
reach each pupil. It has been noted that it is of peculiar 
value at the opening of each session of the class as an 
incentive for prompt attendance. Through its use there 
is also quite definite assurance that each member of the 
class has benefited by some instruction at each meeting. 
More subject-matter can be covered, for most of the 
pupils in a class, through its use to some extent. 

Class instruction is not sufiicient as the only method, 
for it does not provide adequately for individual differ- 
ences. It should be supplemented by group and indi- 
vidual instruction if the best results are to be obtained 
for all concerned. Class instruction alone makes the 
keeping of the class "together" very difficult. 

Group instruction. By group instruction is meant the 
taking-aside of a number of members of a class for spe- 
cific instruction. It may be that such a group lesson is 
for fast pupils who need supplementary work to keep 
them at approximately the stage of instruction of the 
class lessons. 

Group lessons may also be given to slow pupils of a 
class who need help. For the latter, such a lesson is fre- 
quently a review. It helps to bring slow pupils up to the 
pace set by the average of the class. It is combining a 
number of similar individual lessons or helps into one. 


In so doing it saves the teacher's time and energy, which 
may be used for class and individual instruction. The 
value of this not so frequently used method should be 

Individual instruction. Lessons or help for individ- 
uals is additional instruction. It should not be used in 
place of class or group instruction. Through its use par- 
ticular individual needs relative to subject-matter can 
be met. It also forms a device through which extremes 
in individual differences in speed of assimilation of class 
instruction can be met and adjusted. 

Combined use of all three methods desirable. To! 
secure the best possible results all three methods are at 
times necessary. An analysis of time distribution em- 
ploying these methods of instruction and combinations 
of them reveals advantages which may be gained in the 
total amount of instruction given. 

Suppose a class has an enrolment of fifteen and meets 
for two hours or 115 minutes. 

1. By individual instruction, equally divided, this 
would provide 72/3 minutes of instruction for each 
pupil during the period. 

2. By class instruction 115 minutes of instruction 
would be available for each pupil, theoretically. Such a 
lengthy lesson by the teacher is absurd, of course. No 
class could maintain sustained interest and attention 
over such a long period. Neither could individual differ- 
ences be taken into account. 

3. By class and individual instruction a hypothetical 
class might be divided as follows: One, two or three les- 
sons totaling possibly 30 minutes might be given. This 
would allow 85 minutes for individual instruction or 


5 2/3 minutes for each pupil. This combination then pro- 
vides 35 2/3 minutes of instruction for each pupil. 

4. By class, group and individual instruction in an- 
other hypothetical class the instruction might be dis- 
tributed as follows: There might be one, two or three 
lessons again, totaling 30 minutes. This leaves 85 minutes 
for other instruction as before. Now suppose that during 
the session four homogeneous groups needing similar help 
or additional instruction are assembled and given an 
average of 5 minutes of instruction each, or a total of 20 
minutes. Sixty-five minutes now remain for individual 
instruction, or an average of 4 1/3 minutes. The total in- 
struction for each pupil would then be 30 plus 5 plus 
4 1/3 or 39 1/3 minutes. 

By the use of some time distribution similar to the 
latter one, individual differences affecting speed and in- 
terests are provided for through group and individual 
instruction. The teacher's time and energy is conserved 
through elimination of repetition of individual instruc- 
tion. More total instruction, class, group arid individual, 
is frequently possible by a combination of two or three 
of these methods than by the use of only one. Many 
factors enter into a determination of which methods to 
use and how much time should be devoted to each. 

Demonstration Method 


The demonstration as a particular method of instruc- 
tion is of more than usual importance in evening schools. 
The elementary nature of many subjects and the voca- 
tional character of others which involve handwork in 
various forms gives the demonstration method its pe- 


culiar significance. The Home Economics Division of the 
Minnesota State Department of Education prepared the 
following material in mimeographed form for distribu- 
tion. The very direct information and suggestions in- 
cluded apply equally well to other subjects in which the 
demonstration is used, as it is in home-making. 


"Reasons for Using the Demonstration Method in Evening 
School Work 

"1. Most people learn more easily by what they see and 

what they hear than by what they hear alone. 
"2. Saves time: 

a. For teacher: when demonstrating, shorter explana- 
tions are necessary. 

b. For pupils: they understand it better, therefore are 
ready to go right to work. 

"3. Economical of material: fewer mistakes are made by 
pupils, because of a more thorough understanding. 

"Characteristics of a Good Demonstration 

"1. Make it short and 'snappy. 5 

"2. Give when the majority of the class is ready for that 
particular lesson. 

"3. All necessary material at hand. 

"4. Materials large enough to be seen clearly by all mem- 
bers of the class. 

"5. Actually do the problems just as the jupils are to do it 
(except for the size of the stitches, etc.). 

"6. Explain each point when you do it: work and talk at 
the same time. 

"7. Stand where each pupil can see and hear every point. 

Better Wages Through Better Service (Dunwoody) 

Learning to Do Things America's Way (Duluth) 


"8. Must be well thought out beforehand, that each step 
may be clearly presented and in the proper order. 

"9. Never attempt to demonstrate a thing of which you are 
not absolutely sure: a demonstration is no place to 
"10. A demonstration often follows a discussion. 

"Steps in a Demonstration 

"1. Statement of lesson to be demonstrated. 

"2. When possible, first show the finished problem as it 

should be. 

"3. Explanation of materials used. 
"4. Actual doing of the problem: 



"5. Showing finished article. 
"6. Summary of points. 
"7. Future application." 

General Suggestions for Planning Work 

The Home Economics Division of the Minnesota State 
Department of Education also made the following sug- 
gestions which apply to any type of instruction method 
and are basic with all types of class procedure. They 
make nine excellent commandments for planning in- 


"1. When possible show the thing itself rather than describe 
it; a picture is next best to the real thing. A diagram or 
sketch will also help. 


"2, Be sure that your language includes those technical 

words only which are familiar to your pupils; explain 

carefully each new w6rd. 
"3. Be sure that you teach no more at one time than your 

pupils can hold. 
"4. After you have taught the pupils something, or think 

that you have at least, make sure of it before you go on 

to the next thing. 
"5. Endeavor to teach the thing at the time the pupils feel 

the need for it and see the necessity for it in connection 

with the piece of work that they are doing, 
"6. Never do anything yourself that the pupils should do. 
"7, Never tell the pupils anything that you can make them 

think out for themselves, unless you think that this will 

take too much time or will result in a loss of confidence. 
"8. Do not allow the pupils' attention to lag; keep them 

thinking all the time. 
"9. Connect the old with the new wherever possible; this 

not only makes it easier for the teacher, but the pupils 

understand much more readily." 

Iowa Series of Aids for Evening School Teachers of 
Industrial Education 

The State Supervisors of Trade and Industrial Edu- 
cation for Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas prepared a skele- 
ton outline of a series of pamphlets they wished to have 
for their evening school teachers. Professor J. V. Lynn 
of Iowa State College at Ames was asked to write these 
pamphlets along the lines suggested. 

The series is composed of five pamphlets four by nine 
and one-fourth inches, and varying in size from four to 
eight pages. It is planned to have the teacher receive 
Numbers 1 and 2 previous to the first class meeting; 
Number 3 immediately following the first lesson; Num- 


ber 4 following the second lesson; and Number 5 imme- 
diately after the third lesson is taught. The following 
quoted material is extracted from Number 4, Personal 
Management Problems. It is indicative of the very con- 
crete manner in which the instructional material is pre- 
sented in the entire series. In its simplicity lies one of its 
chief values as an aid to the new industrial education 
teacher, in a new evening class, frequently in an iso- 
lated situation. It is suggestive of the type of instruc- 
tional material that is needed for teachers of almost all 
evening school subjects. 


"2. Questioning 

"Briefly, there are two kinds of questions; test or review 
questions in which the instructor seeks to know what the 
learner has retained about previous lessons, and development 
questions in which the instructor leads the learner to think out 
something for himself by -suggesting old ideas and having him 
link them with new ones. 

"Test questions should be worded so that if the learner does 
not know he cannot answer. For instance, a machinist may be 
asked if he can use a micrometer. He may answer either 'yes' 
or 'no/ but in doing so he does not convey any idea as to his 
skill or knowledge. The question might have been, 'How many 
turns of the micrometer barrel are equal to one-tenth of an 
inch?' If he knows how to use one he will say 'four/ and if he 
does not, he simply cannot answer the question. Do not use 
catch questions. To ask wh^t kind of lubricant is used when 
turning cast-iron gives a wrong impression, for none is used, 
and the learner is not being fairly treated. Do not use a bad 
practice question. Men, if experienced, are not expected to 


know how to do things the wrong way. Be sure all questions 
are definite. A 'How do you do?' question may often be very 
indefinite like, 'How do you mix paint for a priming coat?' 
Answers may be, 'thin, with lots of oil/ 'in a bucket/ or 'with 
a stick.' They are all correct for the question asked, but the 
first is the only one which tells what the questioner wanted. 
Make it impossible for the answerer to say anything else. 
Sometimes the questions are so worded that answers can be 
picked out of the question by the suggestive way it is asked. 
A painter might say to his apprentice, 'Do we put paint on a 
house to protect the surface, or to make it look better?* The 
latter gets his cue from the question and says, 'both.' It would 
be much better to ask, 'Why do we paint the exterior of 
houses?' and have the apprentice dig up the answer. 


"Development questions are not given to test knowledge, 
but to lead thought. They go in chains, one growing out of the 
preceding one. That is, they are arranged in a logical order of 
reasoning from link to link. Frequently, they spring from the 
answer just given to the previous question, because the in- 
structor does not know in just what direction the learner's 
thought may go. Example of a development chain from a 
lesson on the action of glue in joining boards together: 

"1. Q. Why do we rub or press the glued surfaces together? 

A. To squeeze out the glue. 
"2. Q. Is all of it squeezed out? 

A. No, only if there is too much. 
"3. Q. What becomes of the rest? 

A. It stays between the boards. 
"4. Q. Then the boards are not touching each other? 

A. Yes, they are. 

"5. Q. Then the glue really has no space to occupy between 
the boards? 


A. No, it squeezes into the pores of the wood. 
"6. Q. What does it do there? 

A. It fills them up. 
"7. Q. What effect will the glue have when 'set?' 

A. It will be hard and act like tiny hooks. 

"In the above example, had the learner given the answer to 
number 5, which was intended to be for number 1, there would 
have been no need for asking questions 2, 3, 4 and 5. An in- 
structor needs to be alert so as to get the learner back into 
line again with as few questions as possible. Development 
questions should follow the principle of reducing erroneous 
answers to the impossible or absurd. This makes the learner 

"A few general rules on questioning may be helpful: 

"a. Avoid asking questions so that they can be answered 
by 'yes' or 'no/ unless followed at once by a 'why?' 

"b. Do not make any suggestion of the answer. 

"c. Take care to word them $o that the learner has no 
doubt in selecting the desired answer from among 
several which might be cdrrect. 

"d. Make them brief but clear. 

"e. Make them simple for slow thinkers, but put a chal- 
lenge up to the good thinker by hard questions. 

"f. When wrong answers are given, do not discourage by 
ridicule or even neglect of them. Better to acknowledge 
it as your error in not asking the question properly, 
and try it again differently. 

"g. If questioning a group of learners, ask the question 
first, so that all may get the answer ready, then name 
the one to answer aloud. 

"h. Distribute questions without any set order. (Would 
you ask one who possibly knows the answer, or one 
who does not? Which has the better effect on the rest 
of the group a wrong or a right answer?) 


"3. Being Side-Tracked 

"With a group of learners it is very easy to get away from 
the purpose of your lesson. It is not intentional, but frequently 
a learner, because of his curiosity, will ask about something 
of interest to himself. Possibly it may be of interest to the 
others and possibly not. You must quickly decide upon its 
value to all. If worth the time to all right there, and treatment 
can be brief, take time out, but get back onto your lesson 
topic at the earliest opportunity. Do not let it run away with 
the time. If not advisable at the moment, acknowledge the 
question as a good one and arrange to take it up personally 
after the lesson is over. Always make good your promise. 

"4. Trial and Error 

"This has reference to the question of how far an instructor 
should leave a learner to discover for himself how to do cer- 
tain things. If admitted generally it argues the necessity for 
neither teachers nor schools, but that is the extreme. Originally 
all things were learned that way, and all new things to-day are 
being added through experimental effort. Schools are needed 
to shorten the process for the mass of society. At the same 
time we cannot feed learners with a spoon. We should rarely 
tell what we can lead them to find out for themselves. Notice, 
it says 'lead' not 'leave!' The teacher is on the job but he is 
spurring the learner to a self-activity which is the force re- 
sulting in knowledge. 

"5. Teach Only One Method of Doing a Thing 

"Some teachers will seriously question this. Where there is 
one best way of doing some operation with tools, and any 
other method is clearly not so good, it is undoubtedly a mis- 
take for the instructor to demonstrate wrong ways under the 
impression that he is warning his learners against them. It is 
an error on two counts, namely that some learners get con- 
fused and afterwards are not just sure which one was the right 
method, and also that some learners will deliberately do it 
the wrong way either out of curiosity to see if the instructor 


meant what he did, or out of natural obstinacy to show that 
they will do it as they think best. 

* * * 

"6. Sustaining Interest 

"Interest is the driving power which gets action or effort. 
No member of a night school can learn without the exercise 
of effort; and interest is that state of mind which causes him 
to give attention to something. The instructor can create or 
increase interest on the part of his students by making use of 
certain devices called interest factors. They act like crowbars 
or jackscrews in that they help to get learners out of an in- 
active rut or hole. The instructor must study his learner and 
then select from the following interest factors one which he 
can use with greatest success/' 

These interest factors referred to are: curiosity, ability 
to master, attainment of some objective, self-respect, ap- 
proval and removal of fear. 


1. Explain how an evening school teacher's approach in his 
methods of instruction should be based upon a careful 
analysis of various factors in his pupils, singly and col- 

2. Why is the imitative method of instruction of relatively 
high importance in all vocational subjects and many ele- 
mentary school subjects? 

3. Explain how certain developmental factors may be en- 
couraged and given practice through the use of the pro- 
ject method of instruction in some subjects and the in- 
ventive method in others. 

4. Why are current occupational practices and methods of 
procedure essential to effective vocational education? 

5. Explain and illustrate how the use of class, group and 


individual instruction is essential to good teaching at 
various times and in varying relative amounts. 


Allen, Charles R., The Instructor: The Man and the Job ( J. B. 
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia). 

Bennett, Charles A., The Manual Arts (Manual Arts Press, 
Peoria, Illinois). 

Bobbitt, Franklin, How to Make a Curriculum (Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston). 

Bonser, Frederick G., The Elementary School Curriculum (The 
Macmillan Company, New York) . 

Dynes, Sarah, Socializing the Child (Silver, Burdett and Com- 
pany, New York) . 

Evening Industrial Schools, Bulletin No. 18, Federal Board 
for Vocational Education (Washington, D. C.) . Out of 

Friese, John F., Exploring the Manual Arts (The Century Co., 
New York) . 

Hall-Quest, A. L. ? Supervised Study (The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York) . 

Hill, Patty, and Others, A Conduct Curriculum, Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York) . 

Kilpatrick, W. H., The Project Method (Teachers College 
Bureau of Publications, New York). 

Lynn, J. V., and Others, Special series Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5, State 
Board for Vocational Education (Des Moines, Iowa). 

Methods of Teaching Adult Aliens and Native Illiterates, Bul- 
letin 7, 1927, United States Bureau of Education 
(Washington, D. C.). 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 
Kansas) . 

Pickitt-Boren, Early Childhood Education (World Book Com- 
pany, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York) , 


Selvidge, R. W., How to Teach a Trade (Manual Arts Press, 
Peoria, Illinois). 

, Individual Instruction Sheets (Manual Arts Press, 

Peoria, Illinois). 

Stray er, George W., A Brief Course in the Teaching Process 
(The Macmillan Company, New York) . 

Thayer, H. C., and Others, Wisconsin Vocational Pamphlets 
(process and information sheets) (McGraw-Hill Com- 
pany, New York) . 

Training in the Technique of Study, Bulletin No. 20, Bureau 
of Educational Research, College of Education, Uni- 
versity of Illinois (Urbana, Illinois). 

Vaughn, Samuel J., and Mays, Arthur B., Content and Meth- 
ods of the Industrial Arts (The Century Company, 
New York). 

Wells, Margaret, The Project Curriculum (J. B. Lippincott 
Company, Philadelphia). 




A high grade of supervision of evening school classes 
is an outstanding need. This need is due chiefly to the 
variety of subjects offered, to the sources of teachers and 
to the varying amounts and character of the training 
the teachers have received. All teachers employed, irre- 
spective of the quality, type or amount of their training, 
need special preparation for adapting instructional 
methods to adults. This factor adds to the importance 
of the subject of supervision. 

This discussion of supervision is given a chapter status 
chiefly because of its importance, and not because of the 
amount that has been accomplished in this field. It is 
separated from the following chapter on "Administra- 
tive Duties" to emphasize the distinction between these 
two major types of school duties for which school offi- 
cials are responsible. 

Time Devoted to Supervision 

If the evening school organization is small, one official, 
a director or principal, usually must serve in both ca- 



pacities. In such a case a time distribution should be 
provided for each type of work. In a study made by 
Dr. Homer J. Smith, 1 he discovered that .in the field of 
industrial education administration the strongest mode 
was 75 per cent administrative work and 25 per cent 
supervisory. The median was approximately a 60-40 di- 
vision. One would be led to believe that generally a single 
evening school official should likewise not devote more 
than 75 per cent of his time to promotional, business and 
directive activities. When the work is first inaugurated, 
it is likely that the amount of time devoted to adminis- 
trative work might approach full time. As the organiza- 
tion develops, more and more time should be devoted 
to the supervisory aspects, even more than half. 

Where the evening school organization is large, there 
should be both an administrative officer and a supervisor. 
In other educational fields the supervisor is sometimes 
an assistant to the administrative director. 

Particular Needs for Evening School Supervision 

Supervision in day-schools is everywhere accepted as 
an established educational procedure. The cosmopolitan 
offerings in evening schools, all planned for adults, need 
supervision "even more, particularly in the teaching 
aspects. In classes where day-school teachers are em- 
ployed, some results of day supervision are applicable 
and undoubtedly carry over. Teachers recruited from 
outside the schools, of course, have had no pedagogical 
supervision. All teachers need training in methods, ap- 
proach to pupil and conducting classes. 

1 Homer J. Smith, Industrial Education (The Century Co., New 
York), pp. 120-121. 


Local Evening School Supervisors 

"Day-school supervisors may be employed for the 
supervision of classes with which they are familiar 
through day work. Assurance is necessary, however, that 
they realize the differences which exist between teaching 
children and teaching adults. 

The advice and assistance of supervisors or directors 
of various forms of vocational education should be se- 
cured if at all possible. These officials have contact with 
the pupils in the upper levels of day-schools and part- 
time schools. The particular knowledge which they have 
regarding requirements for subsidies, class organization, 
equipments, subject-matter and special methods for vo- 
cational subjects makes their potential contributions of 
very material value. 

In evening school organizations or single schools em- 
phasizing the vocational subjects, it is quite desirable to 
have the city director of vocational education act as the 
evening school director or principal, if the added task is 
not too great. Where elementary grade school subjects 
are particularly emphasized, a similar supervisor may well 
serve in an official capacity for the evening classes. Spe- 
cial subject supervisors should be used whenever possible. 

In large evening school systems a separate director or 
assistant superintendent is necessary. He should have 
such assistance as is necessary, including that for super- 
vision. He must be able to mate contacts with such other 
administrative and supervisory officers as is essential to 
the development and conduct of his division of the public 
school system. 


Supervisory Activities 

The supervisor of evening school teaching is required 
to do much more than make visits to observe instruction 
and later offer constructive criticism. It may be necessary 
for him to conduct training classes before school opens. 
He may find it desirable to conduct formal classes in 
teacher-training in service for particular groups of teach- 
ers classified by subjects, departments or schools. The 
preparation and sending of mimeographed helps are 
among his tasks. Selection of subject-matter and organ- 
ization of well-developed courses of study are included 
among his duties as a supervisor. He must also visit 
classes and observe teaching. This, of course, should be 
followed shortly after by comments on good teaching and 
suggestions for improvement in teaching methods, con- 
duct of classes, pupil approach, subject-matter and any 
of the other basic principles underlying good teaching 
which are weak or need correction. The supervisor, how- 
ever, should never permit his work to become mere criti- 
cism and class-room visitation. 

Imposing records of attendance are desirable. They 
indicate strength of teaching and effective organization. 
After a high degree of excellence has been achieved in 
these matters, however, the chief future activity requir- 
ing time, money and energy should be in the direction, 
of effectiveness in teaching. This produces the ultimate 
educational results which are the real purpose of all 
educational endeavor. It is in efforts along these lines 
that the importance of competent supervision is mani- 


Reasons for Present Lack of Good Evening School 


Supervision constitutes one of the chief weaknesses 
in evening education at the present time. Numerous 
reasons exist for this condition, chief among which are 
the following: 

Evening schools are still in the embryonic stage in 
many communities. Time, effort and money have of ne- 
cessity been expended in promotional, business and di- 
rective affairs. With the more substantial organization 
of evening schools, greater time and effort should and 
will be placed upon supervision. Each local organization 
must follow this process in development more or less 
closely. The extent and growth of evening schools scarcely 
have been sufficient to warrant extensive special train- 
ing programs for either administrative directors or super- 
visors. Experience has been the chief teacher in the past. 

The literature of evening education has been meager. 
These schools have been a sort of side issue too often, 
instead of a major activity. This condition is reflected 
in the available literature which might aid future efforts 
to establish and conduct evening schools. 

The work of local supervision in the past has been 
only that which the evening school administrators have 
found time to do after their major work was accom- 
plished. Very often such efforts have been of the hit-or- 
miss variety rather than progressive developments. More 
time will be given to effective supervision as these schools 

Supervision is handicapped considerably by the hours 


during which evening schools must be in session. It is 
difficult to arrange group meetings, not considering entire 
faculties. This applies particularly to efforts in organized 
training in service. 

The results of supervision, except as they find perma- 
nent form in courses of study, are negated or lost to a 
degree which corresponds with the annual change in the 
personnel of the school faculties. With organizations 
placed upon a sounder and more permanent basis, such 
loss should be lessened materially. The necessity for ex- 
perimentation with subjects should lessen also. Life cer- 
tification of teachers by States in vocational subjects will 
also act to lessen the turnover in teachers. At the present 
time there is much room for improvement. 

Because day teachers have been employed in evening 
schools to teach subjects with which they are familiar, 
there has been a tendency to think that supervision for 
them is unnecessary. This erroneous idea has been 
pointed out previously. 

Supervision in State Subsidized Subjects 

State supervision of subjects aided or subsidized is to 
be expected. Where the subsidy is wholly from the State, 
it is frequently in the elementary school field. State su- 
pervision usually emphasizes teachers' qualifications and 
physical matters. The annual inspection of a class, if 
there is one, can only result in more or less cursory super- 
vision of methods, class organization and conduct, sub- 
ject-matter and the like. However, all possible benefit 
should be reaped from the criticisms and suggestions of 
these State officials. 


Supervision of Subsidized Vocational Education 

Generally aid for vocational classes is combined State 
and federal reimbursement for teachers' salaries, as was 
explained in Chapter XII. As was just noted concerning 
State aid, partial reimbursement for teachers' salaries 
depends upon approval of classes and teachers. This in- 
volves inspection by a State supervisor for the subjects 
subsidized. Established standards must be recognized and 
achieved. Supervision is usually combined with inspec- 
tion. State supervisors pass along the results of good 
work they have observed elsewhere. They frequently 
make suggestions for improvement in the teaching, but 
they are careful not to overstep the bounds of State and 
federal authority in local affairs connected with the 
school system. 

State supervisors' constructive criticisms of industrial, 
agricultural and home-making classes coming under the 
provisions of the federal vocational education law con- 
stitute one form of supervision. As specialists in their 
respective fields they are in a position to offer many 
helpful suggestions which, if followed, usually lead to 
improvement of instruction. 

In addition to the visits of inspection and help, State 
supervisors sometimes send out periodic letters and mim- 
eographed aids. These center attention on the most im- 
portant phases of vocational instruction in the various 
fields and upon the most pressing needs. 

Itinerant teacher-trainers may be the State super- 
visors, or specialists who work under their jurisdiction. 
Arrangements for their services, if such are available, are 


made through the offices of the State supervisors. The 
instruction offered usually centers around methods, or- 
ganization of subject-matter and class organization and 
conduct. Definitely mapped programs leading to certifi- 
cation are sometimes inaugurated. At times local needs 
as expressed by local officials or teachers are stressed. 
Such teacher-training may take place just previous to 
the opening of school, during the term or immediately 
after the end of the term. It constitutes a commendable, 
organized attempt to raise the status of teachers in 

Importance of Local Officials as Supervisors 

At the beginning of this chapter there were brief dis- 
cussions of the importance of supervision, time devoted 
to supervision by local directing officials, particular needs 
for evening school supervision, local evening school su- 
pervisors and supervisory activities. With these discus- 
sions in mind, the importance of the local school officials 
as supervisors should be apparent. Such local supervisors 
know the most pressing needs of individual teachers and 
departmental groups. They are more closely in touch 
with local educational needs than others can be. They 
are in a position to assist in the selection of subject- 
matter and its organization better than outsiders, in 
other than regular day-school subjects. 

The difficulties involved in assembling evening teach- 
ers for consultation and study have been touched upon 
briefly. Meetings of this kind on school nights are a bur- 
den and cannot be lengthy. Supervisors can do little 
more than touch the high points of a problem. Meetings 


on other than school nights may be quite impossible for 
both supervisors and teachers. What time is available is 
usually spread out, and is available on such occasions 
that the local supervisor frequently can take better ad- 
vantage of it than an outsider. These occasions are 
chiefly before and after school. 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education, which 
administers the national vocational education law, has 
ruled that a portion of funds devoted to teacher-training 
in a State may be used to reimburse local supervisors 
for work performed in teacher-training in service. This is 
a well-defined recognition of the importance of local 
efforts in supervision of vocational subjects, including 
those in evening schools. 

In Chapter V, "The Preliminary Teachers 3 Meeting," 
considerable space was devoted to a detailed outline and 
discussion of teacher-training by the local official or offi- 
cials on the occasion of the first teachers' meeting just 
preceding the opening of school. This is an illustration 
of one place and one method of approaching the problem 
of supervision. 

The direction of work on the organization of well-de- 
veloped courses of study was discussed in Chapter X, 
"Courses of Study." Reference was made there to the 
desirable results which might be obtainable by using 
work on courses of study as a medium for teacher-train- 
ing in service. The supervisor's work is to lead, help 
and suggest. To the teachers who are specialists in par- 
ticular subjects should be left most of the detail work. 



1. Name and explain factors that operate in evening schools 
which make all supervision difficult. 

2. What aspects of evening school teaching need to be 
brought to the attention of all the teachers? 

3. Explain why many vocational teachers frequently need 
quite extensive supervision, including teacher-training in 

4. Why should local evening school officials give increas- 
ingly greater amounts of their time >and efforts to super- 
vision as a local evening school system develops? 

5. What supervisory activities may local supervisors under- 

6. Explain why evening school supervision has not devel- 
oped rapidly or to a great extent. 

7. What contributions may State supervisors of -subsidized 
or specially aided classes make, and what are the in- 
herent weaknesses of the positions of such officials in this 

8. What factors inherent in the local supervisor's position 
makes his supervisory activities of special significance 
and worth? 


Barr, A. S., and Burton, William H., The Supervision of In- 
struction (D. Appleton and Company, New York) . 

Bobbitt, Franklin, How to Make the Curriculum (Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston) . 

, The Curriculum (Hougtyton Mifflin Company, 

Boston) . 

Burton, William H., Supervision of the Improvement of Teach~ 
ing (D. Appleton and Company, New York). 

Charters, W. W., Curriculum Construction (The Macmillan 
Company, New York) . 


Lynn, J. V., and Others, Evening Industrial Teacher Training 
Bulletins, Special Series Nos. 1, 2, 3 ? 4, and 5, Iowa 
Board for Vocational Education (Des Homes, Iowa) . 

Nutt, Hubert Wilbur, The Supervision of Instruction (Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, Boston). 

Smith, Homer J., Industrial Education (Administration and 
Supervision) (The Century Co,, New York) . 



The purpose of this chapter is to review briefly the 
chief administrative duties which evening school officials 
are called upon to perform. The administrators may be 
both building principals and directors of evening schools 
if the system is large enough to require such an organiza- 
tion. In small cities the building principal and director 
may be the same individual. 

Duties of supervision will not be touched upon because 
of their treatment in the previous chapter. 

The assembling of short discussions of the chief duties 
of administration into this final chapter is designed to 
lay before the reader in brief space a picture of the com- 
posite whole of evening school administrators' work. The 
chief duties they are called upon to perform have been 
touched on or discussed in greater or less detail in the 
previous chapters. Specific references will not be made 
to such material. Only brief descriptions or discussions 
of these duties will be given. 

Plans for Schools and Classes 

Many duties are included in the making of plans for 
a year's work. Much of the success of evening school 
instruction depends upon the care and foresight used in 



planning. Included in this work is the determination of 
what subjects to offer, the locating of classes in specific 
subjects in the geographically best buildings, the secur- 
ing of the most adaptable rooms and equipment, the 
formulating of time scheduler hours, evenings, schools 
and lengths of courses and the adjustment of plans for 
teachers to budget requirements. Preliminary plans for 
the following year's classes, teachers, schools, ' time 
schedules and costs should be made immediately follow- 
ing the close of a current term of school. 

Selection and Employment of Teachers 

It is desirable to make plans for the selection of teach- 
ers for particular classes early. Actual selection should 
accompany final plans in order that all possible teachers 
may be considered and the most promising ones em- 
ployed. Inability to secure suitable teachers might cause 
a school official to defer offering a specific course until a 
qualified teacher is available. 

Teachers in evening schools aare drawn from three 
principal sources day teachers, former teachers and oc- 
cupational specialists. The development of strong courses, 
classes that are in constant demand, and the employ- 
ment of instructors who teach in evening schools year 
after year are most desirable goals toward which to 
strive. The problem of teacher selection is greatly re- 
duced by developments in the above directions. Only 
the best available teachers in a community should be 
employed, and their salaries should be commensurate 
with their ability and effectiveness. Low salaries for 
teachers is poor economy in evening schools. 


Plans to Meet Requirements for Special Aid 

Accompanying the making of plans for classes and 
employment of teachers there may be an additional 
problem if some of the classes are designed to meet State 
or State and federal requirements for special aid. Such 
classes may be in agriculture, trades and industries and 
home-making as provided for in the vocational educa- 
tion act. State aid for classes other than these may be 
available, and if reimbursement is to be asked for, the 
minimum requirements must be observed in making spe- 
cial plans for them. Teachers, subject-matter, time 
schedules, plant, equipment and pupils enrolled are com- 
mon factors entering into this special problem. 

Plans to Meet Requirements for Grade and High School 


If evening school organizations are- large enough to 
permit pupils to study over a period of years and even- 
tually to secure elementary grade and high school di- 
plomas, an additional element is injected into planning. 
State and local requirements for graduation must be 
observed. Subjects must be selected which meet the re- 
quirements of pupils in any year and which at the same 
time will attract a sufficient enrolment to warrant the 
formation of classes. 

Plans for Evening School Expansion 

Special plans are necessary when evening school pupils 
begin to appear in numbers over a period of several sue- 


cessive years. Two methods of procedure may be fol- 
lowed. One is to offer a greater Variety of courses in the 
general field of such pupils' interests. This may be 
thought of as lateral expansion. Another way to provide 
additional instruction is to organize more advanced units 
in the same subjects. This is vertical expansion. Either 
method or both may be. needed. 

Outlining of New Courses of Study for New Classes 

When new classes are to be offered, the preliminary 
outlining of courses of study usually rests with admin- 
istrative officials. The extent to which such outlining is 
necessary depends upon the nature of the subject, the 
teacher, the available time of the administrator and his 
knowledge of the subject-matter of the class in question. 
The one in charge of administering the work should at 
least make a brief outline of the main divisions of the 
work. The teacher as a specialist should be able, possibly 
with assistance, to work out the details. 

Timing Lengths of Classes 

When courses of study are divided into short units, the 
determination of the amount of time to devote to each is 
very important. Ample time is necessary, but there 
should be no period of slack at the close. When several 
closely related subjects, as in home-making classes, are 
thus divided, the short units should be so timed that a 
pupil may move from one unit under one teacher to 
another unit under another if she so desires. 

Short-unit courses cause more administrative work but 


are of great psychological value to the pupils. Such di- 
vision into units also permits the pupils to move about 
with the possible result of securing more exactly the 
instruction desired. Short units also have a tendency to 
make the teacher's instruction more specific, intense, 
definitely bounded and well organized. Short units are 
particularly adapted to vocational subjects. 

Dovetailing Classes 

When single-hour classes are organized in any build- 
ing, one or more classes in the same general field should 
be provided for a second hour's work. Pupils generally 
do not desire to enroll for a single hour of instruction. 
They feel that the nights of evening school are broken 
for other purposes. At times considerable effort and also 
expense are involved in their attending evening school. 
Attention to this factor in planning classes for a build- 
ing is essential. 

Flexible Organization 

The evening school organization needs to be flexible 
in several ways. If it is to be responsive to immediate 
and changing needs, classes may have to be added, 
changed or dropped. The organization of subject-matter 
of courses should be very largely on a nightly unit basis. 
This system of organization permits pupils to enter at 
any time after the course has started. In spite of all 
efforts to secure enrolments at the appointed time, many 
do enter late. 

Planning instruction on a daily basis makes it possible 
for pupils to break into a class more readily and does 


not disrupt the class as much as when the units of sub- 
ject-matter are long. The physical organization for en- 
rolling pupils and getting them into classes should like- 
wise be simple and adjusted to meet the conditions of 
late entrance. 


After all details of planning have been completed and 
the evening school faculty has been employed, the next 
major activity in time sequence is advertising. It is to no 
purpose to hide the light of evening school offerings 
under a bushel of conservative silence or perfunctory 

To a considerable extent, but particularly during the 
period of first promotion of evening schools, the public 
must be educated about evening adult education in addi- 
tion to being informed of specific offerings. Various 
mediums are available for school advertising. Among 
the chief of these are: newspapers, printed circulars and 
leaflets, school papers, printed and art posters, addresses, 
mimeographed letters, street-car cards and moving pic- 

Advertising should always be of high quality. Specific 
information and instructions should be given. All that 
is possible should be done to make advertising interest- 
ing, attractive and catchy. Advertising costs money, time 
and effort. It is worthy of the best thought that can be 
given to it. It should represent that which it advertises 
just as truly as other advertisements do. Anything less 
than an adequate and truly comprehensive advertising 
program is unworthy of the evening school. 



Upon evening school administrators falls the work of 
planning the enrolment, devising a system of blanks 
which meet specific local needs and conducting the enrol- 
ment. Common practices in enrolling are two in number. 
Sometimes enrolments are made previous to the opening 
of classes and at other times on the first evening of 
school. Both methods have specific advantages and dis- 
advantages. Each may possess greater value than the 
other under certain conditions. Circumstances associated 
with types of pupils enrolled, types of classes and longev- 
ity of establishment of classes or schools are contributing 
factors in determining which method to use. 

When enrolment is made for subsidized classes, the 
State or federal requirements regarding pupils need to be 
observed when enrolments are taken. 


A system of recording enrolment fees must be pro- 
vided if such fees are collected. A safe depository for 
them is necessary. A system for recording attendance 
accurately must be inaugurated if the return of enrol- 
ment fees is dependent upon the percentage of attend- 
ance. A plan must be devised also for quick and accurate 
calculation of percentages of attendance and return of 
enrolment fees to those who have earned their return. 

An accurate and adequate system for collecting ma- 
terial fees and book deposits, if there are such, must like- 
wise be placed in operation. A system of records which 
accounts for the amounts of money collected as special 


fees and how and for what purposes they were disbursed 
is essential to sound school administration. Material fees 
may be collected, at the time of enrolment, in lump sums 
by the teacher in the class, or in small amounts as pupils 
use materials. Such fees may be turned over to the board 
of education, expended by school officials or given to the 
teachers to expend as they see fit or under the direction 
of school officers. The type of class, character of ma- 
terials used and method of securing them may influence 
which method of disbursing is the best one. 


If equipment and supplies are to be ordered through 
the school-board offices, the evening school officials are 
responsible for the preparing of requisitions and the 
checking of articles received. If materials or books are 
sold singly to pupils for cash, rather than through fees 
which all members of a class pay, proper accounts of 
such must be kept. 

Budget Records 

All expenses incurred in evening schools which are 
chargeable to specific items in an evening school budget 
should be accurately recorded. School officials should be 
able to determine balances under each classification of 
expenditure at any time. 

Class Adjustments 

An important duty is that of making class and pupil 
adjustments. These occur chiefly at the time of enrol- 


ment and immediately following. They are necessary, 
however, at other times also. Some classes may have to 
be reduced in size and other provisions may have to be 
made for those removed. Other classes may have such a 
small enrolment that they cannot be organized or must 
be dropped shortly. Pupils thus affected must likewise 
be provided for if this is at all possible. 

Combining classes and possibly changing the content 
of the reorganized class may solve the problem on occa- 
sions when there is an overflow or when one or two 
classes not wholly dissimilar have small enrolments. A 
great difficulty in such procedure is to organize subject- 
matter which is interesting and of value to all. 

The selection of pupils to be changed from one class 
to another because of excessive enrolment is about the 
most difficult work an administrator is called upon to do. 
It requires great tact, patience, kindness, and ability to 
reason with others. When done in the best possible way 
it frequently leaves a feeling of unfairness in the minds 
of those who are thus changed, especially if the change 
is not to a new section of the same class. 

Pupil Records 

Evening school officials are responsible for the organ- 
ization and operation of an adequate system of records 
of evening school pupils. Chief among such records are 
the following: enrolment, attendance, fees, results of 
pupils' work, weekly or other periodic class reports from 
teachers, consolidated monthly or term reports of schools 
or the entire evening school organization, an annual re- 
port in which important data about pupils and classes 


are included and a permanent record for each pupil on 
some form which is filed in the school. 

In planning blanks to be used in recording data about 
pupils, classes and so on, the information asked for in 
State and federal reports should be studied and blanks 
formulated accordingly. The securing of other informa- 
tion relative to pupils and classes, desired for any of 
several purposes by local authorities, should also be made 
readily possible through careful planning of forms. In 
the development of small evening school organizations 
the system of forms frequently grows with the needs of 
the organization. This method of development is not 
bad, but future growth and needs should be anticipated 
to some extent. The experiences of larger and of more 
highly developed evening school systems may often be 
studied with profit. 


Reports of evening school officials may be to any or all 
of three agencies the local board of education, the State 
department of education and its subdivisions and the 
United States Bureau of Naturalization. If forms for 
recording data about classes have been planned with 
foresight and if records have been accurately kept on 
them, the compiling of data for reports is chiefly a rou- 
tine matter. The making of such reports may require con- 
siderable time, however. 

Checking School Property 

The checking-out of school property of all kinds and 
the recording of its return require the organization of 


some definite plan. This applies to equipment of all kinds, 
supplies and books. As the head of the evening school 
organization, the principal or director, as the case may 
be, is held more or less definitely responsible for all school 
property used. A definite record should be made of all 
property loaned and returned, irrespective of whether 
the borrower is a teacher or a pupil. 

A definite procedure should be followed in cases of 
breakage or loss. Three methods are common. One is 
to have broken property repaired, replaced or paid for. 
Another is to require no replacement. A third is to charge 
"insurance" or "rent" for the use of property, or to re- 
quire a deposit to cover possible breakage or loss. 

Cooperation with Day-School Organization 

An important duty of evening school administrators 
is that of cooperating with day-school officials and teach- 
ers. When buildings, rooms and equipment are used for 
evening instruction, a cause for friction may exist which 
usually can be prevented if a definite understanding is 
arrived at. Day-school officials and teachers use the prop- 
erty involved over greater periods of time than the cor- 
responding evening school people. They have a rightful 
proprietary feeling toward their buildings, rooms and 
equipment. Often they are held to some accountability 
for them. If evening school officials can talk with those 
who use school property regularly each day, place before 
them their needs, and make reasonable efforts to reduce 
to a minimum inconveniences caused by evening school 
operation, any possible friction may be greatly reduced 
or eliminated. If evening school teachers are also day 


teachers in the same building, it is desirable that they 
be assigned to their day-school rooms, shops or labora- 
tories if such are not specifically needed by other 

Cooperation is also required with day-school super- 
visors, textbook and reference book librarians, those in 
charge of school book-shops, and custodians, janitors and 
engineers. Sometimes the services of these school em- 
ployees are necessary for varying periods of time. Some- 
times their advice is needed, and at times their consent. 

Keeping Order 

Pupil discipline is almost negligible. Adult pupils with 
a serious purpose come to study and work. Those who 
would bother soon drop out when they discover they 
must work and cooperate with other members of their 
classes or be virtually ostracized. 

If the prohibition of smoking in or about school build- 
ings is a local or State regulation, this condition may be 
the chief and often only cause for speaking to pupils. 
When such reference to smoking is necessary, pupils 
usually respond to a kindly suggestion. Frequently they 
are either forgetful of such regulations or are unfamiliar 
with them. 

The problem of boy hangers-on around school build- 
ings at night is frequently the most disturbing one. The 
brightly lighted building attracts them. They are apt 
to play, be noisy and distract classes because of their 
presence in corridors and entrances, and at windows. 
Some can be reasoned with and sent on their way. Others 
may have to be threatened. The calling of the local police 


should be the last resort. This should be done, however, 
if those in charge of the building do not have sufficient 
time to cope with the situation or if it gets beyond con- 

Collection of Records 

Evening school officials must check the delivery or col- 
lection of periodic reports of classes. They must make 
cumulative records for the entire system or supervise 
their compilation. They must make periodic and final 
reports to the superintendent and board of education 
based upon the records of classes. They must supervise 
the making and filing of permanent records of each 
pupil's work in each subject. 

Observation o Individual Class Attendance 

An important duty of principals or directors is to 
watch the attendance of classes. Initial enrolment, sub- 
sequent additions, drop-outs, average attendance and 
percentage attendance are important factors to observe 
in judging the holding power of the instruction of any 
class under normal conditions. Observations of attend- 
ance may lead to division of large classes, or the ending 
or consolidation of those which have dropped low in 
average attendance. It may also lead to closer inspection 
and supervision, and help to assist in locating and rem- 
edying instructional difficulties if this is possible. 

Cooperation with Bureau of Naturalization 

The Federal Bureau of Naturalization through its dis- 
trict offices will upon application send lists of names of 


aliens in the local community and possibly in outlying 
districts. These lists are of value if Americanization 
classes are to be offered. School officials also should ar- 
range for examination of pupils who have completed 
citizenship courses and expect to apply for full citizen- 
ship. Federal examiners conduct these examinations and 
issue certificates to the successful candidates. These cer- 
tificates are of value when the candidates appear in court 
for final examination and the granting of citizenship. 


Beside supervising the making and collecting of vari- 
ous class, school and system records, the evening school 
officials must assume responsibility for making the pay- 
rolls. They should be carefully checked, and whatever 
data are needed for budget purposes should be collected. 

Substitute Teachers 

The securing of substitutes is another duty of the 
administrators of evening schools. A list of possible sub- 
stitute teachers should be kept if the system is large. 
Adequate notification of the need for substitutes should 
be insisted upon. The suggestions and recommendations 
of regular evening teachers may be of great value in 
securing some substitutes. This is especially true of teach- 
ers of vocational and other special subjects. 


The displaying of work done by pupils may be made 
an incentive to greater effort by others. Such showings 


are of interest both to pupils and the public. They center 
attention upon the work of evening schools, and are a 
valuable publicity device. Exhibits may be placed in 
school display cases and windows, retail store windows 
and at fairs. The assembling of exhibits requires con- 
siderable time and effort. The cooperation and help of 
teachers should be secured. They are usually willing and 
competent to do much of the work if plans are outlined 
for them. 

The work of classes in vocational subjects, such as 
trade, agriculture, commerce and home-making, lends 
itself quite readily to displays. The physical evidences 
of work in many academic classes are usually not so 
adaptable to exhibition. Efforts should be made to pro- 
vide some methods by which one or more phases of the 
work of academic classes may also be exhibited. 

Certificates and Diplomas 

When pupils complete an elementary grade or high 
school curriculum, diplomas must be prepared. This duty 
is one for the evening school administrator. Other cer- 
tificates showing subject, attendance records and grade 
of work accomplished are desired by many pupils at the 
close of one or more unit classes. They are desired in 
vocational classes particularly, as evidence of training. 
Many pupils in elementary school classes also desire them. 
They are readily made out- in cooperation with teachers. 

Physical Conditions of Buildings 

Arrangements for additional janitorial and boiler room 
service must be made before evening schools open. Full- 


time employees may be secured for this extra service or 
additional men may be employed. The hours of work, 
duties and method of payment are the chief factors which 
must be arranged for and understood. 

School officials are responsible for emphasizing to 
teachers the importance of light, heat, ventilation and 
cleanliness. Teachers should be constantly alert to detect 
bad conditions and right them if they can, or else report 
them. Physical conditions are in some instances a more 
acute problem with large groups of adults than with 
pupils of day-school age. 

Vocational and Educational Guidance 

Guidance service is one of the most vital problems and 
duties of evening school officials. Guidance frequently 
must be both educational and vocational. The evening 
school may have a highly differentiated and departmen- 
talized curriculum. To a considerable number of pupils 
the offerings under such conditions are confusing. Pa- 
tient explanation and guidance are then needed. 

The results of guidance service are evidenced in fewer 
requests for changes in registration, fewer drop-outs and 
fewer class adjustments. The chances of pupils 7 getting 
into the classes they desire or which will be of greatest 
benefit to them are greatly increased. For pupils and 
entire classes it is possible to get instruction under way 
more quickly and efficiently because of homogeneous 
grouping based on needs, desires, past experiences and 
past education. 

An adequate program of educational and vocational 
guidance, developed from particularized methods and 


procedure, is one of the outstanding needs at the present 
time. When it is developed, evening school instruction 
will be more generally effective because a very simple 
condition will obtain. Pupils will determine upon or be 
assisted in arriving at an educational or vocational goal 
before expending effort. All educational work can then 
be made to contribute to the goal set. 

Direction o Assistants 

The direction of those who assist in administrative 
work is an important phase of school officials' duties. 
In business contacts and in planning, organizing and 
directing the work in classes and schools, considerable 
detail work is required of administrators. Among the 
chief helpers are those who assist with enrolling, stenog- 
raphers, librarians, store-room clerks and janitors, and 
at times assistant directors and supervisors. In the work 
these people do there is much that can be entrusted to 
them if they are at all efficient, properly taught and 
assured of the administrator's confidence and apprecia- 
tion of effective services. In the ability of officials to 
get their assistants to feel that they are working with 
their chief rather than under him, and that they are 
important cogs in the administrative wheel, lies the crux 
of cooperative enterprise. This is just as true with an 
official's administrative helpers as it is with his teachers. 


1. Make an outline in which the chief administrative duties 
of evening school officials (either principals or directors 


or both) are classified under a number of group headings. 
Do not include supervision. Make the outline in consider- 
able detail Use the text if you desire. 


Bulletins of the Federal Board for Vocational Education 
(Washington, D. C.), listed under References at the 
close of Chapter XII. 

Cubberley, Ellwood P., Public School Administration (Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, New York). 

Friese, John F., Exploring the Manual Arts (The Century Co., 
New York). 

Parker, Laurence, Organization and Instruction of Evening 
Classes, Series III, State Teachers College (Pittsburg, 
Kansas) . 

Smith, Homer J., Industrial Education (Administration and 
Supervision) (The Century Co., New York) . 




The excerpts which constitute Appendix A are ex- 
tracted from Adult Education. This is a 68-page report 
of the Sub-committee to the Committee on Adult Educa- 
tion of the American Vocational Association at its annual 
convention in Los Angeles, California, December, 1927. 
Permission graciously has been given to the author by 
Dr. Charles A. Prosser, Chairman of the Sub-Committee, 
and a member of the General Committee on Adult Edu- 
cation, to reprint any or all of this report, 


"In February, 1927, the American Vocational Association 
adopted at its Louisville meeting a resolution creating a Com- 
mittee on Adult Education and instructed that Committee to 
make a report at the next annual convention. Pursuant to this 
action, the President of the Association appointed a committee 
of five members Miss Anna E. Richardson, chairman, Mrs. 
Mary Schenk Woolman, Dr. R. L. Cooley, Dr. R. J. Leonard 
and C. A. Prosser. Subsequently, by action of the chairman, a 
Special Sub-committee was created to make a report with 
recommendations to the Major Committee, regarding the prin- 
ciples and policies which should be considered in promoting 
and operating programs of adult education. Five persons have 
served on this Sub-committee and assisted in the preparation 



of this Report Mrs. Eva White, Miss Elizabeth Fish, Mr. 
James McKinney, Mr. C. R. Allen and the chairman, C. A. 

Why the Report? 

"It is the understanding of your Sub-committee that these 
were the main considerations which led the Association to 
make this inquiry: 

1. We are in the midst of a tremendous revival of interest in 
educational service to adults. 

2. There is a growing recognition of its vital social im- 

3. Measured from the standpoint of members, the task is a 
stupendous one which affects, potentially, the well-being of at 
least eighty million people. 

4. From the standpoint of the infinite variety of persons to 
be served and the infinite variety of their interests and needs, 
the task seems to be an almost appallingly varied, confused, 
and difficult one. 

5. For very special reasons, the members of the A. V. A. are 
or should be deeply concerned with the matter and give it spe- 
cial attention. 

6. For other special reasons, equally urgent, that attention 
should be given now. 

What Kind of Report 

"It is the further understanding of the Sub-committee 

that those primarily responsible for the resolution creating the 
Committee held these views and hopes: 

"Interest of the Association not academic but social and 
professional. 1. As educators engaged in vocational training, 
we have already assumed the grave responsibility for at least 
this form of educational service to millions of American 


2. Our interest in adult education, therefore, is not an aca- 
demic, but a professional one. 

3. We are not, at this time, concerned with the past history 
of adult education, unless, briefly told and interpreted, it fur- 
nishes a lamp by which to guide our feet for the future; and 
we have seen no evidence that it does. 

4. We are not, at this time, concerned with elaborate statis- 
tical studies or with information of any kind, unless its inter- 
pretation aids us in the solution of the responsibilities we face, 
or should face, for the education of citizens. 

Scope of the Report 

"The Sub-committee further understands that the report 
is expected to consider all educational service to adults and 
not vocational education alone, which is only one special form 
of that service. At once the question arises: Why should the 
A. V. A. give any attention to adult education outside the field 
of vocational education? These reasons were given by those 
responsible for the resolution: 

1. Vocational education is to-day the nucleus of organized 
education for adults. 1. Those engaged in vocational educa- 
tion of any kind through schools are, therefore, vitally con- 
cerned with the field in which to-day they are responsible for 
at least nine of every ten persons served. 

2. The A. V. A. is a national organization engaged in the 
effort to provide educational service for ordinary men and 
women for the great mass of the citizens of this country. 

3. Vocational educators constitute the group most intimately 
acquainted with the problems which are involved in providing 
education for the great mass of mature people. 

4. They are a group experienced in dealing, on a large scale, 
with education of less than college grade for adults. 

5. They have developed means of reaching and serving some 
of the vocational needs .of at least one-half million employed 


6. Vocational education is, to-day, the nucleus the core 
of adult interest in educational service by the schools. 

"Vocational educators should be the spokesmen for the 
ordinary citizen. 1. They have, in the promotion of their 
cause, already made themselves the special champions of the 
educational interests and needs of employed citizens. This is 
their outstanding characteristic in every community where 
such educators serve. 

2. The vocational educator has also become the interpreter 
of the interests and needs of such citizens and by making their 
vocational wants articulate has, in many communities, become 
the representative of the group. 

3. Usually, he is the only educator in the community spe- 
cially concerned with the education of adults and as such be- 
comes the educational engineer responsible for this service. 

4. Vocational educators cannot drop this responsibility at 
the door of the vocational class. 

"The Association and its members have a duty and an op- 
portunity. There is a great gap to-day between the total kinds 
of educational service needed by adults and that which is now 
offered or planned; between the number of adults who need 
and want educational service and the number for whom service 
is offered or planned; between the number of different groups 
that should be helped and the number of groups for whom help 
is offered or planned. Somebody must assume responsibility 
for these gaps. 

"No other national organization is doing this and the A. V. 
A., because of its personnel, is well equipped for this task. If 
history repeats itself, we may expect to see, in the rapid devel- 
opment of adult education, the provision of educational service 
for certain groups and the neglect of others, particularly of 
wage-earners. To contend for the right of these neglected 
groups to whatever educational help of any kind they may 
need, is not only the almost inborn or acquired habit of the vo- 
cational educator, but his professional duty and privilege. 


"This report, therefore, is not confined to vocational edu- 
cation. It deals with educational service to citizens of which 
training for employment is only one form. Ninety per cent of 
the adults who take instruction of any kind through schools 
have a vocational objective or aim as against ten per cent who 
do so because of all other objectives. 

"These figures are based upon an analysis of correspondence 
school students made by one concern which showed that, 
roughly, not less than ninety per cent of them had vocational 
objectives; three per cent enrolled for family reasons, such 
as the desire to keep up with the school work of their children; 
three per cent who took the work had distinctly cultural ob- 
jectives such as 'wanting a high school education'; while the 
remaining four per cent represented a sort of straddle a 
group who sought the help of the school because they felt that 
'education is power/ economically, socially, or both. 

"A democratic program will provide for all forms of edu- 
cation and for free choice by citizens. Most of the education, 
however, that people get through other agencies than the school 
and the job is not vocational. Every citizen has, as already 
stated, other interests and needs. He should have a chance to 
satisfy these as well as be equipped to earn a living and win 
promotion. This Committee believes that all adults should 
have the right to choose what they want in education as their 
way out to efficiency and to happiness that this applies with 
equal force to cultural education, civic education, health edu- 
cation, family education, and every other form of desirable 
educational service just as much as it does to what is com- 
monly called vocational education. Probably most organized 
adult education will always be vocational because this kind 
of education is that for which most adults feel the greatest 
need, but all avenues should be open. 

"We do not undertake to say that one form of education is 
better than another. What we do undertake to say is that any 
democratic program of adult education will pro-vide for all 
forms of service and that whatever is given to any individual 
or group should be the free choice of those served. 


Not a Complete or Final Report 

"It is the further understanding of your Sub-committee that 
the intent of the resolution passed by the Association was to 
obtain, at this time, not a complete and final report but an 
introductory or preliminary report which might pave the way 
for further study of the subject by proposing issues and outlin- 
ing the problem. For many reasons, that need not be recited 
here, the report must also be more illustrative than final and 
complete, of every matter treated. We believe that a report 
will best meet the present condition which does these things: 

1. Proposes briefly the fundamental principles and policies 
which should be followed in any democratic program of adult 
education a creed, if you will, for the movement. 

2. Pictures briefly the present situation its high lights and 

3. Outlines briefly the problems to be solved and the condi- 
tions to be met. 

4. Describes briefly the issues involved. 

5. Suggests and illustrates briefly policies and methods for 
solving them. 

6. Blazes the trail briefly for vocational educators. 

7. Recommends briefly the next step of the Association. 
"Parts of the report. The aim of the Sub-committee has 

been to, prepare, for the consideration of the Committee a re- 
port based squarely on all the foregoing conditions under 
these main headings: 

I. The Present Situation in Adult Education. 
II. Some Fundamental Principles. 

III. Conditions and Difficulties to Be Met. 

IV. Agencies, Methods and Devices. 
V. Recommendations a summary. 





C. A. PROSSER, Chairman. 



Some Explanations 

"What is adult education? 1. At the very outset of this re- 
port, the Sub-committee realizes that some of the terms em- 
ployed need to be explained in order that the reader may not 
be confused. 

2. Your committee uses the term adult education in its 
widest sense. 

3. What we are talking about is any experience which af- 
fects the abilities or attitudes of human beings. 

4. That experience may be first-hand, as when a person 
gains a knowledge of some country by visiting it, or learns to 
draw by drawing, or thinks his way through some idea he 

5. It may be second-hand, as when one acquires informa- 
tion from others by reading or picks up an idea from some- 

6. The test is whether what has happened has affected him 
in some way. 

7. Education is anything that makes you different because 
you know more, or can do more, or think differently, or have a 
changed attitude. 

8. This is what adult education is rapidly doing for the 
citizens of this country. 

9. It is making them different and, on the whole, for the 


* * * 

"A partial list of organized agencies follows, which, in one 
way or another, are educating are changing the adult citizens 
of this country: residence schools, home study correspondence 


schools, extension courses, churches, fraternal orders, libraries, 
art galleries, museums of natural history, theaters, movies, the 
radio, reading circles, literary clubs, social settlements, book 
publishers, newspapers and magazines, lecture courses, open 
forums, and political parties. An analysis of such organized 
agencies is given at a later point in this report. 

"Teaching versus instruction. 1. In this report a distinction 
is made between these two terms: 

2. Instruction occurs, for example, whenever a person is fur- 
nished with information about things or directions about 

3. Generally speaking, a person who lectures in a classroom 
instructs his students by giving them information so that they 
'know' more than before. This same kind of service is rendered 
to a degree by an encyclopedia or dictionary. 

4. Generally speaking, also, a person who tells (directs) 
others what to do or how to do things is also instructing. An 
officer who gives orders to his men is instructing and so is an 
instructor in home economics when she gives her class direc- 
tions for cooking a particular dish. This is also true to an ex- 
tent regarding a manual for soldiers or a cook-book. 

5. Teaching, as we use the word, occurs whenever the learner 
gets a new insight into a matter a better interpretation a 
greater understanding a different point of view a changed 
attitude in short, 'a different slant on things.' A man who 
disseminates facts may be an instructor, but getting people 
to think is teaching, 

6. As instructors, Socrates and Jesus must be rated as fail- 
ures, for they added but little if anything to the stock of in- 
formation possessed by their followers. But they are recog- 
nized as the two great master teachers of the ages one be- 
cause he stimulated the thinking of men and the other because 
he won the hearts and minds of men to a religious faith and 
a code of living. 

7. Broadly, there are two ways of teaching people two 
ways to give them 'a different slant on things/ In the one 


case, the main appeal is to their reason; in the other, to their 
emotions. Socrates used the first method, and Jesus the second. 

8. A political leader who is also a statesman teaches when 
the force of his argument wins the people to his cause. So does 
any leader in any movement who appeals to the judgment in- 
stead of the prejudices and passions of men. 

9. A great play, on the other hand, which teaches us some 
great lesson that changes our attitude toward life or toward 
men, makes its chief appeal to our emotions. This is true also 
of a great book or a great 'movie' or a great oration. 

10. As an agency in adult education, the schools as we know 
them rank high as dispensers, in an organized way, of informa- 
tion and direction. 

11. Those who serve in these schools, however, teach only 
when they help their students to understand and interpret 
knowledge and life. 

12. Whatever may be the possibilities of the school as a 
teacher of men, there can be no doubt but what there are other 
agencies such as the theater, the 'movie/ the public platform 
and the book which can teach -some things better than the 
schools. Since adults do not live by bread alone (information) 
the movement for their education should be at least as vitally 
concerned with the use of teaching agencies and devices as 
with the use of instructing agencies and devices. 

Why Adult Education? 

"For reasons discussed at a later point, this country has, so 
far as public support is concerned, given but very little atten- 
tion to the need for adult education. There is one very con- 
spicuous exception to this statement and that is the extension 
service in agriculture, industry, and home economics which is 
maintained by public funds and which, during the last two 
decades, has made such rapid and promising progress. Gen- 
erally speaking, we have pinned our faith to the education of 


juveniles as our means of social salvation. It may be well, 
therefore, to set down here the case for the further or exten- 
sion education (service) of citizens after they have left the 
regular schools and taken up in a serious way the responsi- 
bilities of life in this country. 

"The social and political principles on which that case 
rests were set forth in Part I of this report and need not be 
repeated here. It remains to picture briefly the need for the 

"A rapidly changing world forces the American citizen, 
more than any other human being, to face the constantly 
changing problems and difficulties of an almost kaleidoscopic 
environment. Even the individual himself is in a ceaseless 
process of change in his employment, his attitudes and ambi- 
tions, his social contacts, his interest and opportunities. 

"A slowly changing, almost stationary citizen in his 
equipment must meet changing demands and rising standards 
of performance for every phase of the social job. 

"The 'ever receding goal/ to use President Eliot's apt 
phrase, constantly widens the gap between what this country 
needs and expects from this citizenship, and the ability of the 
citizen to meet these expectations. 

"The inadequate equipment of the typical citizen. The 
majority of the citizens of this country have these charac- 

1. They left school on or before becoming 16 years of age. 

2. They completed not more than 8 years of elementary 

3. Millions lack this minimum. 

4. Most of them learned how to read, write, and figure; 
some geography; a little history; and possibly a few things 
about nature and the like, 

5. Since leaving school, all the 'education 7 most of them 
have received has been gained through the experiences of life. 
These are very vivid, very educative, but unorganized and 
therefore uncertain and inadequate to meet the situation. 


"Life plus. The case for adult education rests upon the need 
for this plus helping the citizen to get what he needs, which 
he cannot get surely and efficiently through the chance cir- 
cumstances of life. 

"The problem of the democracy. Democracy needs more 
help from every man and most citizens need more educational 
service from the democracy. 

A Picture of Present Conditions 

"The size of the problem. 1. Roughly, there are some 80,- 
000,000 people in the United States, over 21 years of age. 

2. At least 40,000,000 of these could be educated further in 
some organized way. 

3. Not less than 10,000,000 citizens are getting some kind of 
'education' in some one or more of many different ways. 

4. They are getting it through a wide variety of agencies of 
which the school is only one. 

5. What many of them are getting is unsatisfactory and the 
way they get it is equally so. 

6. At least one-tenth of our adult population are deliberately 
trying, by study or by earnest reading or by carefuly planned 
travel or by some other means, to improve themselves. 

"Two different theories as to what adults want or should 
want. 1. One is that education is only what is related to 
scholasticism, mysticism, or religion. 

2. The other is that education is anything that 'helps a 
fellow get along better' or 'get more out of life/ The Sub-com- 
mittee has based this report on this latter conception. 

"What help adults want from 'education/ 1. What the 
mass of citizens want is help in doing things they want to do 
connected with their daily life: 

2. Help in understanding better interesting things around 


3. Help in understanding and performing, in a better way, 
their duties and responsibilities. 

4. Help in keeping themselves and their loved ones phy- 
sically fit and competent. 

5. Help which will enable them to share more intelligently 
in the common life, 

6. Help in making the most of themselves. 

7. Help in getting, by wholesome means, more enjoyment 
out of life. 

"What some adults are now getting from the present edu- 
cational service. 1. So wide are their interests that it is difficult 
to picture them with ordinary phrases. 

2. A growing number are receiving help in the doing of 
things, which we call Vocational help. 7 

3. As a whole, citizens are getting some information about 
almost every conceivable subject. 

4. Some of them are using this information to think about 
things about their health, their religious life, their duties and 
responsibilities, their family problems, the World Court, the 
city charter, the latest discoveries in various fields of science, 
the latest achievements in aviation, the latest inventions in 
mechanical devices, the Mississippi flood problem, current 
political issues, the latest novel which has a message and tells 
it well all these and a thousand other subjects are the kind 
about which thousands of citizens are reading and thinking 
and talking. 

5. Many adults are concerned only with the question of 
somehow picking out something to read that will prove inter- 
esting, understandable, and profitable. 

6. Some are attending evening classes and a greater number 
are receiving instruction by mail. 

7. A still greater number are more or less earnest readers 
of newspapers and periodicals and books. 

8. The scope of what all these people are interested in learn- 
ing coincides with the full range of human interests. 

9. There is no demand which the democracy makes on its 


citizens which is not represented to some extent in the reading 
and study of this vast army of adults. 

"An evaluation of the present service to some adults. 

1. All of those served in any way are getting a great deal of 
information and some of them are doing a considerable 
amount of thinking. 

2. Not all the facts they are learning are important or valu- 
able for life. 

3. They are absorbing other people's ideas, which is, of 
course, infinitely better than to have no ideas at all. 

4. Intelligence, however, is best developed when men get 
the facts and think independently (for themselves). 

5. At its worst, however, what any of these millions of 
adults are getting is also infinitely better than no reading and 
no study. 

6. Therefore, it is priceless from the social standpoint and 
should be stimulated and increased in every possible way. 

7. Education, however acquired from the school, reading, 
the theater, the 'movie/ the radio, travel or by any other 
means, is something that makes you different. 

8. This is what adult education in the wide use of the term 
is already doing for millions of the citizens of this country it 
is making them different, and on the whole, very much better 

"Comparative public and private support. It is, of course, 
impossible to give any accurate figures here, If we consider 
as private support, however, both the contributions of private 
philanthropy and all the money which the citizens of this 
country pay for organized educational service of every kind, 
it is probably safe to make these statements. As a liberal esti- 
mate, less than 5% of the total cost of that service is met by 
public funds and more than 95%, therefore, by private sup- 
port, while something in excess of 90% of the total is borne by 
citizens themselves. The outstanding characteristic of adult 
education in America is that, with the exception of university 
extension courses, agricultural extension work, and evening 


classes under the National Vocational Education Act, adult 
education is, generally speaking, a personal and not a public 

"What we are doing in the typical American community. 
What follows is, of course, not true of all communities. A con- 
siderable number of our cities have taken most commendable 
steps in the development of educational service for adults. A 
few cities have extensive programs already in operation. Here, 
however, we are describing the customary situation conditions 
common to typical of most communities: 

p 1 $ 

1. These communities are spending" virtually all the money 
on those remaining in school and ignoring the fact that the 
majority of our youth of high school age are at work. 

2. They ignore the fact that these working youth have, on 
the average, only a common-school education: and assume, 
apparently, that this education constitutes a complete equip- 
ment for life. 

3. They ignore the fact that a corresponding proportion of 
the adult population has only the same school equipment, and 
assume that this equipment is adequate for life. 

4. They ignore the fact that community, state, and nation 
are constantly making demands on these citizens which such 
citizens are not prepared to meet and which they need help to 
meet efficiently. 

5. They ignore the fact that these demands are constantly 
changing, and assume that the standards for the performance 
of the social job of citizenship in all its aspects remain the 
same in character and at the same level. 

6. They assume, apparently, that although we live "in a 
democratic society, the intelligence of the ordinary man is of 
little consequence; and, by this assumption, they follow, in- 
stead of the Jeffersonian idea, the Hamiltonian idea that 'the 
superior groups' do all the thinking, decide all matters, and 
control the community. 

7. They are making demands, through the rising standards 
of a changing world and through public opinion, upon the 


great mass of citizens which these are unable to meet without 
help: and are failing to give this help. 

8. They are spending most of the public money on education 
for the group most able to pay for it; and neglecting the great 
body of those least able to pay for it. 

9. They are trusting to Providence for the results of all the 
foregoing policies. 

10. See also the further discussion of this matter under 'The 
Need for Local Responsibility and Support' (Part II, Sec- 
tion 5) . 

Some Additional Considerations 

"The relative value of adult vs, juvenile education. L In 

Part III the characteristics as learners of adults and juveniles 
are compared and contrasted. 

2. If the analysis there given is sound, it shows that adults 
are more capable of further education, which requires experi- 
ence and reasoning at least, than juveniles of corresponding 

3. As a proof of this, recent investigation shows that most 
men do their best mental work when they are about fifty years 
of age. 

4. We have centered our attention upon the training of 
youth because they are young and plastic and controllable, 
and it is right and necessary that we should do this but it 
should not lead us to neglect educational service for adults. 

5. There are still legal barriers in some of the states which 
prevent the use of public money for the general education of 
those who are over 21 years of age or married, unless they be 
illiterate or aliens. 

6. Aside from the injustice of this policy, it is foolishly un- 

7. The greatest immediate return to the State comes through 
the efficiency of our adult education. 


8. Adult education has desirable immediate values, while 
juvenile education has most desirable but deferred values. 

9. If the present situation shows anything, it shows that this 
country needs, at the present time, widespread intelligence on 
the part of adults to meet its current problems as much or 
almost as much as it needs the education of children for the 
future demands of citizenship. 

10. Because the home is, or should be, such a vital factor in 
the training of children, educational service to adults would 
in the end greatly improve the efficiency of the team-play be- 
tween teachers and parents in juvenile education. 


"What one says or does about adult education will depend 
on his social, political, and educational points of view. The 
conclusions and recommendations of the Sub-committee are 
founded on those that follow: 

Social and Political Principles 

1. Equality of opportunity. There can never be equality of 
ability among men nor, therefore, equality of condition in any 
system of free competition, but a democracy is founded on the 
idea of promoting for all its people equality of opportunity. 
So far as education is concerned, this has not, as yet, been 
provided for the mass of citizens of this country. 

2. The real business of democracy. Democracies arose for 
one purpose only the improvement of their citizens in every 
way. This is their business. A democratic system of adult edu- 
cation will not only be 'good business/ but the redemption of 
a solemn obligation. 


3. Democracy an experiment. While it may be trite to say 
it, democracy is still very much of an experiment very much 
on trial. Not even our own democracy has any special dis- 
pensation from Providence. It must save itself every day. Not 
even the most capable leadership will save it without intelli- 
gent followership able to choose wise leaders. Decide between 
the proposals of leaders, and carry out what they have 

4. Widespread intelligence our bulwark. The safety, prog- 
ress, and conservation of this country depend upon the intelli- 
gence of all its people upon their ability to think straight 
and to do right. If we add together the intelligences of all 
individual citizens, we get what might be called our total 
national intelligence. If we divide this sum by our total popu- 
lation, we arrive at the average intelligence of our citizens 
the intelligence of the typical citizen a sort of national I. Q. 
When this is raised, we make progress; when this falls, we slip, 
and safety and progress are in danger. Increasing the intelli- 
gence of the mass of our citizens is, therefore, as necessary as 
the training of leaders if not mo-re so. 

5. Importance of the common man. Tor good or ill, we 
Have committed our destinies to the keeping of the average 
man. Often we grow restless at his blunders; we despair over 
his stupidity. It is easy to criticize him, for his faults are writ 
large in the chronicles of passing events; he has nothing to 
conceal. At best, he is more deserving of sympathy than of 
censure. For he lives in an age unlike any other in its des- 
perate need of an understanding of the real meaning of life. 
Perhaps we may adapt to the average man and his problems, 
Bernard Shaw's somewhat irreverent remark as to the Deity 
and say, "Don't pity him. Help him." ' John Mecklin. 

6. The real resources of this country are not in its material 
wealth or its industrial achievements, but the developed and 
underdeveloped interests, aptitudes, intelligences, and morale 
of its people. 

7. Every man counts. Whatever may be true of other forms 
of government, a democracy is founded and operated on the 


theory that all men are equal in privilege; that every man has 
a voice; that every man counts; and that every man has some 
contribution to make. Consequently, the stability of, and the 
progress of, a democracy require that everybody be educated. 

8. Mass intelligence vital. This is particularly true in those 
democracies where governments come from the people; where 
the source of all power is vested in the people; and where, 
therefore, all questions of every kind must finally be settled 
by the people. With mass intelligence, these decisions and 
actions will be wise; without it, we perish. To deny this, is to 
assert the Hamiltonian theory, and reject the Jeffersonian 
theory, of democracy. 

9. Democracy sets up standards. In order to secure the 
minimum performance of the social job which is necessary to 
stability and progress, a democratic society sets up standards 
for the performance of that job in all its phases. This it does 
sometimes in law; sometimes in public opinion; and all the 
time, in the rewards and failures of life. 

10. Demands create corresponding needs of the citizen. 
In order to promote stability and progress, therefore, the State 
sets up standards which are constantly rising. These standards 
are, in effect, a demand for the performance by the individual 
of the social job up to a certain and constantly rising level 
This demand by the State creates a corresponding need, on 
the part of the citizen, for help in meeting these standards. 

11. Needs create a corresponding duty of the democracy. 
This need of the individual creates a corresponding duty on 
the part of the State and the community to help him attain 
the required minimum or level of performance, no matter what 
the particular nature of his need may be, nor that of the 
service which he requires. 

12. Duty of democracy creates a corresponding right of 
the citizen. The duty on the part of the State and of the com- 
munity, in turn, creates a corresponding right, on the part of 
the citizen, to the help the State is obligated to give.If this right 
exists, then it is an equal right on the part of all citizens and 
can never be met by any system of adult education which is 



limited to special groups, to special kinds of service, and to a 
comparatively few citizens. 

13. Summary. Standards lead to demands on the citizen; 
demands lead to need for help; need of the citizen for help 
leads to the duty of the State to give service that will help. 
Service leads to the right of every citizen to help. Meeting 
this right by the State gives stability, progress, and conserva- 
tion of our resources, to the country. All this may be illustrated 
by a diagram: 











Jobs Done 


Up ~ 


Gives ; 



Jobs Done 


to Be 















14. When education serves democracy. If these things be 
true, then education serves democracy in proportion as all the 
needs of all its citizens are met. 

15. Citizens facing complex and rising demands. The 
adult citizens of the country are required to meet the con- 
stantly rising social, civic, economic, and personal demands 
which this democracy makes upon them and which are con- 
stantly increasing in number, in complexity, and in difficulty. 

16. Demanding without helping. Not to give this educa- 
tional help, on the one hand, and to expect social efficiency 
on the other, is to demand without helping is to set up social 
requirements on citizens without aiding them in meeting itiese 
requirements, the gravest, perhaps, of all social injustices. 


17. 'The pursuit of happiness.' Entirely aside from the so- 
cial wisdom and the social justice of educational service for 
adults, every citizen has a further right to 'the pursuit of hap- 
piness,' guaranteed by the Constitution. Millions who left, 
school for work at an early age are handicapped in the real- 
ization of themselves for lack of the educational service which 
would 'set their feet on the road to somewhere/ 

The Fight Between Two Creeds 

"There are not wanting signs to indicate that adult educa- 
tion is certain to be another battle ground in the 'eternal fight 
between the reactionary and the progressive educator. What 
course the development of any program of educational service 
for the men and women of this country will take whom it 
will serve and what it will provide depends on which kind 
of educators win that fight. If the reactionaries win, that pro- 
gram will be limited to selected and superior groups and to 
'superior knowledge/ If the liberals win, the program will be 
unrestricted as to those who are to be helped and as to the 
kind of help they are to be given. One would give us an aristo- 
cratic and the* other a democratic service. 

"A creed is nothing more than an expression of belief about 
some important matter by which a man shapes his attitudes, 
his social conduct, or his work. If we bring together the main 
or dominating beliefs of the reactionary and progressive 
groups of educators, we would have two declarations of opin- 
ion or faith which would read somewhat like what appears in 
the table below: 

The creed of the reactionary The creed of the progressive 

1. I believe that education 1. I believe that education 

is primarily for the benefit of is primarily for the social 

a limited group of superior well-being of this democracy 

individuals. and not for individual benefit. 



2. I believe that trained 
leadership is the life-saver of 

3. I believe that the main 
purpose of education is to se- 
lect and train scholars for 

4. I believe that all the nec- 
essary resources of society 
should primarily be applied 
to the training of leaders. 

5. I believe that education 
is primarily preparation for 
the enjoyment of life. 

6. I believe that education 
is the possession of informa- 
tion and culture. 

7. I believe that there is 
one form of education best 
adapted for all people who are 
worth educating. 

8. I believe that those un- 
able to meet satisfactory- 
standards in this form of edu- 
cation -should be allowed to go 
their way without prejudice. 

9. I believe that the edu- 
cator is responsible for the 

2. I believe that a trained 
citizenry guided by trained 
and capable leaders is the 
life-saver of democracy. 

3., I believe that the main 
purpose of education in a 
democracy is to prepare all 
its people for the duties and 
responsibilities of citizenship. 

4. I believe that the ordi- 
nary man needs educational 
service as much as the 'supe- 
rior man' and that he is just 
as much entitled to it. 

5. I believe that education 
is primarily preparation for 
the duties of life, that it is 

6. I believe that education 
is primarily training for 
thinking and doing (things) 
in some socially useful way. 

7. I believe that there are 
many forms and kinds of edu- 
cation for training the inter- 
ests and abilities of many 
different kinds of people all 
of whom are worth educating. 

8. I believe that every nor- 
mal man can and should be 
educated so that he can work 
for }iimself and for society. 

9. I believe that the edu- 
cator is responsible both for 


efficient teaching of approved 
subjects but not for the re- 
sults of his work so far as in- 
dividuals are concerned. 

10. I believe in conformity 
to the ideas of experienced 
educational leaders and in 
loyalty to time-honored edu- 
cational institutions. 

the individual and the social 
results of his work. 

10. 1 believe that education 
must be constantly adapted 
to the changing demands of 
life and should, therefore, 
never be dominated by tradi- 
tion nor by the mere voice of 

"The issues at stake in the fight between the supporters of 
these two creeds as to which shall be followed in the move- 
ment for adult education are, in the opinion of the Sub-com- 
mittee, vital. Holding the convictions we do, your Committee 
believes that, unless the principles of the progressive educator 
are applied in the development of educational service for our 
citij&ens, that service will not be democratic and will, there- 
fore, fail to serve, as it should and could serve, the real inter- 
ests and ends of this democracy. The reasons for this declara- 
tion are set forth below: 

What Happens to Any Program of Adult Education 

The reactionary educator 
has his way 

1. Primarily scholastic in its 

2. Organization of service 
formal, rigid, tending to uni- 
formity and to perpetuate 
traditional methods. 

3. Service only for the 'su- 
perior group' of citizens. 

The progressive educator 
has his way 

1. Primarily social in its 

2. Organisation informal, 
flexible, and resourceful in 
adapting itself to the demands 
made upon it. 

3. Service for all groups. 



4. All groups having inter- 
ests and needs not met by the 
standard service offered will 
be ignored or eliminated. 

5. Emphasizes cultural sub- 

6. Choice of individual lim- 
ited to a narrow range of sub- 

7. Dominated in its meth- 
ods and procedures by the 
ideas of educational theorists 
which have been developed 
for children and not for 

8. Bases its courses and 
methods on the faculty psy- 
chology theory as to the way 
the mind is built and works 
a theory repudiated by 

9. Appeals chiefly to the use 
of the memory, in an effort to 
retain information and direc- 

10. Relies on the lecture 
and the book as teaching de- 

11. Informs much, instructs 
somewhat and teaches but 

4. Serves all interests and 
all needs. 

5. Provides for all subjects 
civic, social and economic as 
well as 'cultural.' 

6. Range of services lim- 
ited only by the needs of citi- 
zens and the funds available. 

7. Dominated by no pre- 
conceived ideas, but adapts 
its policies and methods to 
the characteristics of the 
groups served. 

8. Bases its courses and 
methods on the habit of psy- 

9. Provides also, for those 
who want it, training in the 
ability to think about prob- 
lems and to do things. 

10. Utilizes all methods and 
all devices which are neces- 
sary and effective, such as 
project, case, and conference 
methods, and pictures, films, 
the radio, and dramatization. 

11. Informs somewhat, in- 
structs somewhat, and teaches 


12. Self-contained, it ignores 12. Utilizes all agencies, 
or fails to utilize the services 
of other agencies. 

"Your Sub-committee believes the following statements 
are sound regarding these two conflicting declarations of 

1. The reactionary creed is supported by many professional 
educators high in authority. 

2. Apparently it is also still accepted by many of our citi- 
zens who have political power, since educators are in complete 
control of the educational systems of many American com- 
munities and many of our higher institutions of learning. 

3. Since no man who believes in a creed will, in the long 
run, violate its teachings, it is certain that the principles of 
the reactionary creed will dominate and shape every program 
P educational service to adults in every community and every 
Iducational institution, controlled by those who accept or 
follow its principles. 

4. Should educators and their supporters come to control 
any national movement for adult education, it is equally cer- 
tain that exactly this same thing will result. 

5. More dangerous than the avowed reactionary and his 
creed, expressed or implied, are those conservative educators 
who follow the above practices because of habit and tradition 
rather than because of a belief in any creed or philosophy. 
'Most of them have just fallen into a hole that limits their 

vision. 7 

6. They are more dangerous than the avowed reactionary 
because they are so much more numerous. 

1. The creed of the progressive is also the creed of the 
vocational educator which has inspired and guided him in his 
fight for another great democratic movement in education. 


2. The members of the A. V. A. constitute an outstanding 
group of liberals in education who will accept without debate 
this statement of the progressive's creed. 

3. They have been accustomed to apply its principles to the 
vocational education of adults. 

4. They have become the exponents of that creed in the field 
of vocational education as a whole and in adult education for 

5. That creed appeals with peculiar force to all those who 
have, in the field of education or otherwise, assumed any 
stewardship for the welfare of the ordinary man. 

6. The principles of that creed are being accepted and sup- 
ported by a growing number of intelligent; public-spirited 

7. Members of the A. V. A. need to make common cause 
with all such citizens in the fight for the application of the 
principles of progressive creed to the new movement for adult 


* * * 

"Citizens must finally decide between the two creeds. 
1. The ideas of the reactionary educator prevent, in so many 
communities, the establishment of any service in vocational 
education whatever and, in many other communities, any 
adequate or effective service. These same ideas block the path 
of adult education and they always will as long as those who 
honestly but mistakenly accept and follow them are in control. 

2. There can be no lasting compromise between the follow- 
ers of the two creeds. 'It is a fight to the finish.' 

3. While the number of progressive educators is growing, 
they are still very much in the minority and so are the think- 
ing citizens who have given much attention to the real con- 
troversy between the two groups of schoolmen. 

4. In the end, that controversy will have to be settled by 
the citizens of this democracy who must decide 'which one of 
the two creeds they believe and want carried out in the edu- 
cational activities of this country, including practical educa- 
tion and adult education. 


5. This means that our cause of democratic education will 
get ahead only to the extent to which we are able to convince 
citizens of the justice and the wisdom of the creed we hold and 
of the value of the service we render. In other words, we must 
win the public to our cause as well as many educators. 

Educational Policies in a Democracy 

"The educational service of this democracy should serve 
all levels of intelligence. 1. Mental abilities vary greatly as 
between individuals. 

2. The problem of education in a democracy is to train 
every individual so that he can use his mental equipment in 
the most effective way possible for him, whatever may be his 
native ability. 

3. Democracy needs the highest total and the highest aver- 
age of intelligence among its citizens that it is possible to 

4. This cannot be gained by training the intelligence of a 
few nor can it be gained by regarding the lower grade of in- 
telligence of the many as something not to be developed, but 
ignored and, in this sense, controlled. The very organization 
of the democratic state makes this absurd. 

5. Education in a democracy, therefore, must recognize 
levels of intelligence and must so organize itself that it can 
deal effectively with all grades of ability. Until this is done, 
no democratic scheme of education has been achieved. We 
must quit teaching, as one prominent educator has remarked, 
'an average individual who does not exist,' 


"The movement for adult education must choose between 
the academic or directive theory, and the service theory of 

1. There are two theories as to education which conflict in 
this country. 

2. One is the aristo-directive-fobZe d'hote theory and the 
other is the service theory. 

3. According to the first theory, those in charge of educa- 
tional work have a responsibility and a corresponding author- 
ity to direct, induce, or even compel people to undertake what 
a certain group, usually the same group, believes is what they 
should take. 

4. According to the second or service theory, we should find 
out what the real demand is and meet it solely on the basis of 
giving the customer what he wants. 

5. One starts with a philosophy of life and the other with 
facts ; one regards education largely as an accomplishment and 
the other regards it as a means of meeting social demands. 

6. Your Sub-committee believes that the educational service 
of a democracy should be based primarily on the service 

7. Certainly there is no other way by which to secure a 
really socially effective scheme of adult education, 

"The directive or aristo scheme will not work with adults 
because of the uncontrollable character of the group. 1, You 
cannot force them to take anything, short of compulsory 
legislation backed by the police force. 

2. 'You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make him 

3. You cannot sell them anything, at least educational, 
which they do not want or do not really accept. 

4. You cannot, generally speaking, sell them anything un- 
less it is in some way connected with, or significant to, their 
aims, their ambitions that is, unless they see something in 
it to their personal advantage. 


The Principle of Public Support 

"The need for a public program. 1. There is a need for a 
public program of adult education operated at public expense. 

2. Undoubtedly a tremendous demand exists for educational 
service of every kind to adults, which private agencies cannot 
meet adequately. 

3. Whenever any public educational service for adults 
meets the real needs of people, it is liberally patronized. 

4. Fear of the financial problems involved, once the policy 
of public educational service to adults is inaugurated, prevents 
the local authorities of many communities from beginning 
such a service. 

5. In other communities, the hearty response of citizens to a 
limited or experimental service has, by frightening the au- 
thorities, halted the work or lead to its curtailment or aban- 

"The place of the private institution. 1. We cannot rely on 
privately endowed institutions to provide this service, however 
valuable their efforts in this field. 

2. As in all other fields of social work, the function of such 
institutions in the field of adult education is to serve as ex- 
perimental stations. They can always experiment better than 
the publicly controlled institution because they are more free 
to act; but it requires the use of public funds to consummate 
(provide) any service on a large scale so that all citizens may 
be served. 

3. We cannot rely on private schools operated for profit, 
timely and^ helpful as the work of many of them has been. 

4. Many of them have also served as experiment stations; 
and have rendered, and will continue to render, valuable serv- 
ice where no other help has been available and to groups not 
otherwise to be reached. Those that are efficient in meeting 


the real needs of citizens will always have their place in the 
movement at least for many years to come. 

"No balanced program without public support. 1. Never- 
theless, the program for vocational education will remain un- 
balanced as long as those groups represent the only citizens 
or the only needs served, and as long *as the program is so 
largely confined to vocational subjects. 

2. The present program of adult education is unbalanced 
in these essential respects: 

a. As between public and private service. 

b. As between national, state, and local support the lat- 
ter being comparatively small. 

c. As between groups favored with service and groups de- 
nied service. 

d. As between those most able to pay and those least able 
to pay. 

e. As between vocational education and other forms of 
organized education. 

1 As between the expenditures for educational service to 
children and youth and adults. 

g. As between adult education operated for profit and 
publicly supported service. 

h. As between the numbers served and the numbers need- 
ing and wanting service. 

The Need for Local Responsibility and Support 

"What local communities are now doing. 1. Many com- 
munities have absolved themselves from all responsibility for 
adult education. 

2. They say to citizens: 'Get what you want from the State 
or from the university extension; if you cannot get it from 


these agencies, pay for it yourself through correspondence 
schools (home study) or go somewhere else to get it; if none 
of these agencies give what you want, we are, of course, sorry, 
but you must make the best of it.' 

3. Many communities operate a limited organized program 
of educational service to adults through evening schools which 
are confined to a few lines and a few groups and supported 
by a pitifully small budget. 

4. Only a few communities operate any considerable public 
program of adult education. Probably none of these are fully 
adequate, but they are most commendable and constitute a 
prophecy and promise for the future. 

"What the Sub-committee believes. 1. The Sub-committee 
believes that the program of adult education will continue to 
be unbalanced in all essential respects as long as this service 
is not a matter of local support, local responsibility, and local 

2. This does not in any way fail to recognize the value of 
extension service operated by the State and the necessity that 
it should be continued and enlarged. 

3. Neither does it minimize the valuable service of private 
agencies of all kinds local, state, and national. 

4. The harvest is so large and the laborers are so few that 
there is abundant room and opportunity for every efficient 
service now being provided and for its enlargement. There is 
also 'glory enough to go around.' 

"Reasons for this belief of the Sub-committee. 1. Your 
Sub-committee bases its belief on these reasons: 

2. Any adequate balanced program will require local as well 
as other public and private support. 

3. Local interest is necessary in order to secure widespread 
individual knowledge and interest. 

4. Local participation of a responsible kind is necessary to 
develop local pride and interest. 


5. If an efficient, democratic, and balanced program of adult 
education is to be made available for the citizens of a com- 
munity, some of it must be provided through agencies, both 
public and private, outside the community but much of it 
must also be furnished by public and private agencies inside 
the community. 

"Effective local organization and adult education. 1. Ob- 
viously, the community needs to organize and systematize 
these local services in order to utilize all local agencies, secure 
effective voluntary cooperation, avoid overlapping and dupli- 
cation of effort, and prevent the waste of money. 

2. It is just as necessary that the community should organ- 
ize and systematize in some way the cooperation of all local 
agents with all agencies outside the community which are 
promoting educational service of any kind to- its citizens. 

3. All this would be very plain, if we had the picture of the 
confusion and chaos in almost every community in the field 
of adult education. 

4. There is need in every community of some public central 
agency for the purposes described above. 

5. Such an agency should also be directly responsible for 
all local services which are publicly supported. 

6. It should also serve as a clearing-house for all the citizens 
of the community to which they may go with their educational 
interests, needs, and ambitions and receive the help which 
they require. 

7. The person in charge of this agency should, in the finest 
sense of the term, be the Engineer for Adult Education with 
all the citizens of the community as his parish. 




The Demands on the Citizen 

"If we assume that the primary purpose of education in a 
democracy is to assist to equip the citizen for the better per- 
formance of the social job for meeting the demands made 
upon him as a citizen then there is no escape from the logic 
of the declaration that adult education should first of all serve 
this purpose. If this be granted, then it follows, at once, that 
any democratic program of educational service to adults 
should start with should first of all find the requirements 
which the citizen is expected to satisfy and that the program 
should be based on the findings of such an analysis. Your Sub- 
committee submits, as an illustration, this one. 

A General Analysis of the Demands of This Democracy 
on All Normal Citizens 

1. Citizens are required to meet many and varied demands 
for which they need help. 

2. All citizens are expected to meet a reasonable standard 
in all the demands made on them. In this there is no dis- 

3. All citizens face a constantly changing environment and 
constantly changing demands. 

a. Occupations are constantly changing in their demands 
and opportunities. 

b. New occupations are constantly arising, making new 


e. Civic demands are constantly changing and new civic 
demands are constantly arising. 

d. The interests and opportunities of citizens are con- 
stantly changing as they advance in life. 

e. Most of the pressing demands of life fall upon adults. 

4. Constantly changing conditions and standards require the 
continuous assistance of all citizens in meeting them. 

5. The stratification of citizens is vertical and every avenue 
is open to every man. 

6. All levels of intelligence (ability) play their part in all 
matters and, therefore, need help. 

7. The State protects and stimulates the widest opportunity 
for the expression of individual differences in interest. 

8. Economic efficiency requires the occupational training of 
all groups and individuals as needed. 

9. Civic efficiency requires the civic training of all citizens. 

10. The social efficiency of every citizen requires that he 
keep himself physically fit. 

11. Citizens must solve the concrete problems of real life. 

a. Citizens must solve problems of our own country. 

b. Citizens must solve very current problems. 

c. Citizens must be able to get the important facts neces- 
sary to handle real problems. 

d. Citizens must be able to think with facts so as to make 
intelligent decisions about real problems. 

12. Democracy is least concerned with individual success 
and mos^ concerned with economic and civic efficiency. 

13. This country needs in every citizen a high sense of re- 
sponsibility for service to others. 

14. This country expects every man to improve himself to 
realize the possibilities of his aptitudes, abilities, and talents. 

15. This country wants, if it does not expect, every man to 
be happy to get in any and every legitimate way the fullest 
satisfaction and fullest enjoyment from life. 



An Analysis of the Characteristics of Adults 

"Adult education not the same as juvenile. In all our at- 
tempts to provide educational service for mature citizens, 
particularly through the schools 7 there is danger that we will 
try to use the policies and methods which we have been ac- 
customed to employ with young people. Most of these will not 
work because the adult differs from children and youth in so 
many essential respects. 

"Significant differences between adults and juveniles, to 
which many kinds of educational service for the former should 
be adapted, may be illustrated by the following: 

1. The adult has greater maturity of experience. 

2. Much more uncontrollable. 

3. Adults working, but juveniles not. 

4. Have wider interests than juveniles. 

5. Wider range of responsibilities, as a group and usually, 
also as individuals. 

6. Wider needs. 

7. Wider range of ability. 

8. Greater power to get what they want, 

9. Wider range as to previous education. 

10. Wider range as to objectives and ambitions. 

11. Wider range as to financial ability to get more educa- 

12. Wider range of ideas as to what constitutes education. 

13. Wider use of other educational agencies than the school. 

14. Wider range of response to the appeal of different 
methods and different agencies. 

15. Greater maturity of intelligence (thinks as a man, not 
as a child). 

16. Less interested than juveniles in learning things just to 
learn them as an accomplishment or to win approval. 

17. Greater ability to discriminate between values in edu- 
cational service. 


"Applications of the foregoing analysis. Space will not 
permit any more than one illustration showing how the points 
made in the analysis apply in adult education. The reader can 
readily work out the remainder for himself. We have chosen 
the second statement above that 'the adult is much more 
uncontrollable.' If this is true, then these things follow: 

"Adults are much more uncontrollable. 1. They can walk 
out if they do not get what they want. 

2. Cannot dictate to them what they shall ta"ke. 

3. Opinions cannot be imposed upon them and be accepted 
without their consent. 

4. We cannot suppress, in any efficient service, their opin- 

5. They do not respect the teacher who teaches merely 
theory without experience. 

6. School cannot enforce ordinary disciplinary methods nor 
regular attendance. 

7. They are amenable only to ordinary social conventions 
and man-to-man methods. 

8. But little of the machinery of juvenile education applies 
to adult groups. 

9. Respect for the teacher is based entirely on his ability 
to do what he talks about rather than to theorize about it. 

10. Chief device for control is interest and satisfaction, and 
rewards and punishments do not function. 

"Other important differences from the school standpoint 

between mature citizens and young people, which educators 
need to consider, may be illustrated by the following: 

1. Adults usually want instruction or teaching that is direct 
and usable to help them in solving their own problems or in 
working out their own objectives. 

2. Find it harder to concentrate over long periods of study. 

3. Usually are served best by small doses of help through 
short courses on specific subjects. 

4. Usually have more set habits of thinking than juveniles. 


5. Have greater fixity of ideas and are therefore less docile 
of mind. 

6. Memory is not usually so keen. 

7. Demand more than the juvenile, in the way of reasons 
for propositions prescribed. 

8. Inclined to demand greater informality in presentation. 

9. Demand opportunity to relate instruction to own ex- 

10. Relation of instructor more nearly that of an equal. 

11. Greater tendency to challenge statements. 

12. More alive to reality of presentation. 

13. More conscious of surroundings. 

14. Racial traditions more fixed. 

15. Less time for outside preparation or reading. 

16. On the other hand, a greater tendency to carry the in- 
struction over from one period to another, and to keep turn- 
ing the proposition over in the mind almost constantly. 

17. Racial, social, political, and economic variations of 
point of view demand more consideration. 

Suggestions Regarding Wage-Earners 

"Because the Sub-committee believes that the ordinary citi- 
zen is more likely to be neglected, the following analysis pre- 
sents more particularly the possibilities of helping him: 

1. Instruction continues throughout life. 

2. Opportunities for regular school work must be offered at 
time when persons can attend, morning, afternoon, or evening. 
Opportunities must also be provided to carry on studies at 
home as well as in the school-room. 

3. Adult should set the content of courses through his de- 

4. Content of courses should not be rigidly imposed by edu- 
cational authorities. 


5. Needs of the varying ages beyond the juvenile must be 

6. Amount of time given to instruction must be a period of 
time which will meet the needs of the persons who have a 
particular end in view; namely, one hour, one day, one week, 
one month, one year, etc. 

7. It follows: supreme flexibility of organization essential. 

8. Instruction should be given where the 'crowd' is in 
school, library, lodge, factory, home. 

9. Methods must be adapted to the experience of the group. 

10. Methods must be adapted to the racial background of 
the group. 

11. Instruction must be pointed and illustrative dynamic, 
in other words. 

12. Teaching must be done by those who can control an 
uneven group by drawing on the experience of the more ad- 
vanced to act as assistant instructors in bringing forward the 
less advanced. 

13. Theories are at a disadvantage unless applied illustra- 
tions of theory can be given. 

14. With the adult, the discussion method is often more 
feasible than with the juvenile, since there is greater variety 
of experience with which to make discussion richer. 

15. Most of the ground to be covered must come in the in- 
struction period, as the workingman has little time for outside 
reading or research. 

16. Wise to choose an instructor who is an educated member 
of a given racial group to be served. 

17. In political, economic, and philosophic questions devel- 
oped in connection with instructing racial groups, the in- 
structor must know the particular racial background and the 
particular point of view of the group to be taught. For ex- 
ample, Russians tend to draw away from certain ideas of 
government, to interpret democracy as that form of political 
organization where everyone governs himself. Representative 
government under a democracy, as we know it, has to be 
slowly, carefully, and patiently presented. 


18. Unwise to mix member of certain groups when they 
represent the first generation, unless they have been here for 
a considerable period of time. For example, racial feuds often 
exist between: 

Poles and Ukrainians 

Finns and Russians 

Armenians and Turks and Syrians 

Sicilians and Northern Italians 

Irish and English 

Under certain circumstances, these are bound to break out, or 
the undertone of distrust which is almost physical may detract 
from the attention given to the subject-matter. 

19. Moreover, the foreign-born are hesitant often about 
being in too great a minority when it comes to contact with 
the native-born. 

20. Careful organization of groups to be taught has every- 
thing to do with the success of adult education projects. 

21. Intensive instruction must be given to small groups. This 
is not difficult when adults can afford to pay for the instruc- 
tion. Even where taxes are not forthcoming to meet the cost 
of intensive instruction, the aim should be a teaching unit of 
not over 20. 

22. Provision should also be made for part-time resident 
school attendance and for part-time home study. 

Some Special Problems and Remedies 

"For educational authorities: 1. Technique of adult in- 

2. Hard to get instructors enough who can hold adults to 
meet the demand. 

3. Hard to teach against the preconceived ideas of the adult 

4. Hard to hold the truth in the face of prejudice and keep 
the group to be taught. 


5. Difficult to command the ability on the part of instruc- 
tors to handle the necessary give-and-take which is essential to 
some forms of the teaching of adults. 

6. The breaking away from the rigidity of school rules, and 
the reorganization of the entire school approach presents great 

7. Hard to create the informality of atmosphere required. 

8. Difficult for the average instructor to meet the definite 
challenge of the quality of the adult mind. 

9. Difficult to raise the funds from tax rates. 

10. Difficult to get the necessary leeway of time and money 
for advertising adult education projects so that the community 
will know what is offered. Few school people know how to ad- 

11. Hard to overcome the prejudice against school forces as 
such, the school being looked at as a place where children and 
the juvenile are educated. 

12. Often difficult to get representatives of races who have 
the necessary educational background to teach. 

13. Devices for teaching must be used with greater discrim- 
ination in adult education than in juvenile education. 

14. Instruction must be direct. Filling in material to be 
avoided as far as possible. 

15. On the other hand, owing to the wider range of experi- 
ence and ability usually found in the average group demanding 
adult education, the instructor must teach with far more of a 
"spiral mind" than is needed in the case of juvenile work. 

16. Discussion method demands highest type of teaching. 

17. Hard to get a correct gauge of the current interests in 
a community in order to develop a program for adult educa- 
tion. That is, adults are attracted on the basis of immediate ne- 
cessity, not on the basis of interest. The average adult will not 
take courses because it is thought desirable to have a certain 
type of education. The courses i/Key choose must mean a great 
deal to them personally. 

18. This personal independence of the adult is something 
which must be carefully satisfied by schoolmen. 


19. Since the average adult group presents elements of 
greater diversity than the average juvenile group as found in 
our schools it follows that the instructor must interweave re- 
lated fields as a background to a given subject chosen; that is, 
it is almost impossible to get directly from a to 6 to c in the 
development of a given specialty. 

20. One great difficulty is the tendency of special groups 
to break away and to demand that the subject-matter be that 
which they wish to accept and the point of view be adapted to 
their prejudices or particular outlook. 

"Difficulties from the point of view of the public. 1., 

Against the increase of school funds in the face of high taxa- 

2. Do not see the necessity of adult education. 

3. Think adults should finance their own education. 

4. Do not think school forces can meet the need. 

5. Fear of too much education for the masses. 

6. Fear that adult education will be turned into propaganda 
to be used by special interests. 

Difficulties on the part of the people. 1. Lack of ability to 
command time enough for continued education. 

2. No faith in the professional teacher. 

3. Educational opportunities are not presented in line with 
special interests or are not definitely organized to meet par- 
ticular needs. 

4. Greatly embarrassed sometimes when asked to take work 
offered under school auspices as they think same to be primar- 
ily for the juvenile. 

5. Prefer to meet in social groups. 

6. Members of certain races feel more at home when taught 
in a racial meeting. 

7. Often present mixed motives in their desire for further 
education, which should be carefully distinguished, such as, 
for example: The motive of education for education's sake 
versus the recreation motive which takes education from the 
recreation point of view, pure and simple. 


"Remedies. 1. Support of the idea that the educational 
authorities should stand back of every citizen from childhood 
on, at every point of need, and to meet every craving for 

2. To increase an appreciation of real teaching skill to 
draw into the field of adult education men and women who 
have the personality and power to meet the challenge of the 
adult mind people who have lived with life. 

3. To endeavor to get the best talent of the country to as- 
sist in giving some time to this question of the teaching of 

4. To encourage the self-organization of groups and to meet 
the needs of the same. 

5. To win the confidence of the public by never selling out 
educational standards and succumbing to the desire of the 
group to break educational honesty of presentation. This is 
to say, propaganda should have no place in adult education. 

6. Keep the public informed as to the potential possibilities 
in adult education. 

7. As far as possible, keep the public informed as to results 
that have been obtained through successful work. 

8. Bring the citizens and educational groups together to co- 
operate and work out material to be offered and methods of 

9. Get cooperation of newspapers, including foreign and 
labor press. 

"Provide a social opportunity as well as an educational 
opportunity in any service which undertakes to reach and win 
and help ordinary citizens. Social workers are strongly of the 
opinion that to be successful in adult education, at least in 
other than vocational training where the economic incentive 
is so strong, it is necessary for those who are to take part in 
the program to build up a deep appreciation of the background 
of workingmen's lives. 'How do people live?' is quite as im- 
portant as 'How do people work?' Some knowledge of the un- 


recorded activities of their lives is also important. What, for 
instance, do workmen do with their spare time? 

Some General Implications and Deductions 

"If the foregoing statements are sound, then such conclu- 
sions as the following are logical: 

3. Necessity of a flexible and changing program. If every- 
thing changes, from the individual himself to all the varied 
circumstances and requirements of his life, then no traditional 
set-up of educational service borrowed from the past will 
function now. Suppose that we imagine, if it is possible to 
imagine such a thing, the establishment in this present year 
of some fully adequate educational service which meets the 
real needs of some particular group of individuals. Such a 
service would soon cease to be fully adequate, and in a com- 
paratively short time become clearly inadequate, in meeting 
the real situation, every factor in which citizen, environment, 
standards, demands, needs, and the like is a constantly vary- 
ing variable. 

4. Necessity of an infinitely varied program to meet the 
infinitely varied needs of citizens. Provision for traditional 
courses for standard academic subjects is a valuable contribu- 
tion as far as it goes, but it does not go very far either in the 
size of the groups it reaches, or in meeting the real, specific 
demands for which citizens require help. Even if established 
on a nation-wide basis, such a service would be only partial 
and fragmentary. This would also be true regarding any one of 
all such services as the following, even if such a service were 
available for everybody and everywhere: vocational educa- 
tion; university extension courses; engineering training; agri- 


cultural extension; home study; religious, economic, or civic 
instruction; art or musical instruction; health, athletic or 
recreational instruction; all 'schools 7 taken together; any other 
kind of instruction; or any one service of any kind, however 
much needed or however direct and effective its results. 

5. Necessity of an infinitely varied service to meet the 
infinitely varied interests and levels of ability of people. 
Even if an educational service for adults were established, 
which in its subject-matter met all the interests and all the 
needs of all citizens, it would be necessary, in addition, to 
provide a wide range of methods and devices, in order to make 
the material attractive, understandable, and usable by differ- 
ent groups of citizens. 

To realize this, one has only to compare two articles on the 
same subject in The Atlantic Monthly, and The Saturday Eve- 
ning Post. In order to reach different groups of readers, these 
articles use different language, different styles of writing, dif- 
ferent illustrations, different information, different arguments 
and different 'teaching stuff/ if you will Two different grades 
two different methods of presenting the subject are utilized, 
one of which is literary and possibly somewhat academic, and 
the other of which is popular and more or less direct and prac- 
tical. Writers for these two magazines are skilled interpreters 
of life and affairs to different levels of interests and ability 
among citizens. If magazines must do this to serve different 
kinds of adults, so must all other agencies. 

6. Necessity of an absolutely free service. We do not 
mean free in the sense of tuition, but free from philosophical, 
scholastic, academic, or professional domination and direction; 
free from political or religious or any other kind of group or 
class control and manipulation; free from outworn theories, 
obsolete subjects, and traditional procedures; free from rigid 
organization, perfunctory administration, and smug formalism; 
free from group interest and group prejudice; free from aristo 
discrimination between groups to be served, between subjects 
to be taught, and between the interests or the abilities or the 
kind and level of demands on citizens or the needs of citizens; 


and free from everything else which will prevent adult educa- 
tion from being an absolutely democratic enterprise. 

7. Some additional implications. Those given above are 
only illustrative. Any reader can readily draw many others 
just as sound from the "General Analysis of the Demands of 
this Democracy" given above. There are a few additional im- 
plications which the Sub-committee regards as very important 
and, therefore, feels it should 'plant' at this point: 

a. Adult education must provide in its total service for 
experiences in thinking about the problems and affairs 
of life as well as for exposure to information and direc- 
tion. Your Sub-committee believes the first of these 
three services to be most important. 

b. It must also provide in its total service for experiences 
in the solving of problems and in the doing of things, as 
equally vital services. 

c. It must supplement and make full use of the experi- 
ences of citizens. 

d. It must employ as 'teaching stuff/ functioning (us- 
able) subject-matter for most groups of citizens, at 

e. It must employ concrete and direct information and 
knowledge instead of abstract and indirect knowledge 
for most groups of citizens. 

f. It must furnish applied knowledge with immediate 
value rather than cold-storage knowledge having only 
a deferred and, therefore, uncertain value to most citi- 

g. It must recognize and make full use of teaching, as 
contrasted with informing and directing people in its 
total service to citizens. 


Efficiency Factors in Adult Education 

"If the foregoing implications and deductions are accepted, 
then any program of adult education will be efficient in pro- 
portion as these things are safeguarded: 

1. The service is unrestricted down to the minimum 
levels of social tolerance. It should stimulate and encourage 
every man and every woman, for example, to undertake what- 
ever he or she wants and help them in some way, best adapted 
to the circumstances, to get it. The only limit on this principle 
should be social safety. No one would expect this democracy 
to promote education for safe-blowers* or classes for the 
dissemination of Bolshevik doctrine. Short of such anti-social 
limits, adult education should give every one who wants it help 
in realizing his objectives, whatever these may be better en- 
joyment of leisure hours, better wages and promotion, better 
physique, better health, more worthy home membership, wiser 
saving and investment, clearer understanding of social, civic, 
and economic problems and issues, greater ability to do some- 
thing or greater ability to think about something. 

2. It uses all agencies and any agency school to 'movies* 
that proves itself able to render educational service as we have 
used the term. 

3. It serves all, groups. It cannot, in a democratic scheme, 
serve some adults and refuse others. It cannot, for example, 
discriminate as between occupations far which help will be 
given and other occupations for which it will be denied. It 
cannot provide training for those who want to study college 
preparatory subjects in evening school and refuse it to those 
who want to know how to improve their health or take care of 
babies or rear a family or learn to draw. It cannot provide 
opportunities for 'safe groups' to meet and consider social con- 
troversies and deny the service to those holding opposing 
views. It cannot serve groups with a 'pull' and neglect those 


having no 'pull/ It cannot meet the requests of groups able to 
make themselves articulate concerning their needs and ignore 
the needs of those unable to make themselves articulate. 

4. It makes large use of interpreters, to interpret knowl- 
edge and life. Not profound scholars are needed. They know 
too much to understand the interests and difficulties of the 
ordinary man. They do not know what to select 'for teaching; 
how to present it in simple language and in an interesting way; 
nor how to apply it to the experiences and problems of simple 
people. Interpreters must know both the subject and the ordi- 
nary man and his life interests and problems. An evening class 
in shop mathematics for the machinist's trade gets little that 
is usable from a professional mathematician. It understands 
and uses what it is taught by a competent mechanic who 
knows the mathematics that apply to the trade, knows how 
the machinist has to use it, and can make clear how this is 
done. This is just as true of any attempt to teach the masses 
about health or exercise, or sanitation or microbes, or savings 
or investments, or insurance, or the care of babies, or the rear- 
ing of children, or any other matter. 

8. It is supplementary to life's experiences. In many ways 
life is more educative than schools and books. Adults have a 
background of experience already acquired; to ignore it or 
inhibit it is to take away the basis of all successful effort to 
teach them. Most of them have learned to do what thinking 
they are able to do, in life. To 'stuff them with undigested in- 
formation is to confuse them and prevent them from improv- 
ing their power to think. They need to pool their experience, 
organize it, and with the assistance of some service, learn to 
interpret it, and so understand and think about it. No service 
peddling information alone will ever reach and hold them 

9. It employs all methods and devices. There can be no 
{standardized method of teaching adults anything any more 
than there can be a standardized course or a standardized 


agency. Different groups have different degrees of interest and 
ability, and different backgrounds and objectives. Different 
subjects have to be presented in different ways and the same 
subject has to be presented in different ways for different 
groups. Even periodicals and books treating of the same sub- 
ject reach the different groups of citizens according to the way 
in which the periodical or book handles it. An infinity of de- 
vices must be employed as needed the printed word, the 
play, the 'movie/ the still picture, the radio, the lecture, the 
forum, the reading circle, the lodge, the church, the conference, 
the case, the project, and all the rest have their place. ' 

* * * 

11. It gives everybody what he wants, when he wants it, 

in such a way that he can use it. Most adult education, if it 
is to help people, must be operated on a cafeteria instead of a 
table d'hote plan on the European instead of the American 
plan. Some flexible service is required where customers call 
for what they want and get it, and get only what they call 
for. Those engaged in the work in any way, particularly if 
they have been teachers in regular education, need to remem- 
ber four things: 1. Adults are free to take or reject. 2. They 
know what help they want. 3. They know when they are 
getting it. 4. They will not accept service, however well meant, 
which is imposed on them as 'something just as good/ 

* * * 



The Need for Analysis 

"The movement for adult education in this country finds 
already available a wide variety of valuable agencies that 
can be used and should be used. Somewhere in the United 
States there is probably a forerunner a type of agency that 


can be developed and utilized for almost every kind of educa- 
tional service needed for adults. Constructive work, therefore, 
requires a study of the educational possibilities and limita- 
tions of existing agencies, their methods and devices. Your 
Sub-committee can only sketch this problem and suggest a 
method of approach in dealing with it. 

"We have an organized educational machinery called the 
school to which we have become accustomed to look for sys- 
tematic educational service. 1. Most adults, however, are get- 
ting education in ways that do not conform to the customary 
operation of this machinery. 

2. It has been built to serve juveniles. 

3. It has had either no experience with adults or, generally 
speaking, only with selected groups of adults. 

4. It has been accustomed, on the whole, to provide stand- 
ard, uniform courses and to use standard, uniform methods. 

5. Its personnel cannot be regarded as competent except 
for the groups that the machinery has been organized to deal 

6. Most of the adult education that is needed differs from 
the customary juvenile education in almost every essential 
respect characteristics of learners, objectives of learners, 
content of subject-matter, methods, devices, organization, and 

The danger is that, in the attempt to develop adult educa- 
tion through the schools, we will fail to recognize the forego- 
ing facts. 1. The only way to avoid this is to analyze thor- 
oughly every phase of the matter. 

2. Some rough analyses have already been presented in this 
Report dealing with such points as: social, economic, and 
educational principles and policies; the present situation in 
adult education; the characteristics of adult learners; and 
efficiency factors in the work. 

3. What follows is an attempt so far as time and space 
permit to analyze, in the same rough fashion, the possibilities 
of agencies. 


Organized vs. Unorganized Agencies 

"Organized agencies are those which conduct their work in 
a definite and systematic way. Some agencies which serve 
adults are organized solely or primarily for educational pur- 
poses such as the evening school, the agricultural extension 
service for farmers, the public library, or an art gallery. On 
the other hand, some agencies which render a very valuable 
educational service are, while well organized, not organized 
primarily for educational purposes. Illustrations of such 
agencies are: the 'movies/ the theater, and the radio, the main 
business of which thus far is to entertain their patrons* All 
these are considered in this report as organized agencies. 

"Unorganized agencies are those the work of which is not 
definitely and systematically organized, such as the book, the 
open forum, the debate, political gatherings and discussions, 
and most homes. It is very difficult to classify, for example, 
the modern newspaper. From the business standpoint, it is 
exceedingly well organized. While operated for profit, its 
primary objective as a commercial proposition is to dissemi- 
nate news and ideas, and these are certainly educational en- 
terprises. It is a very unorganized service, however, from the 
standpoint of the great body of readers it serves, many of 
whom at least use it in a more or less unsystematic and desul- 
tory way. 

An Analysis of the Mediums Used by Agencies 

1. At the top, in most of our thinking, is the highly organ- 
ized work of the school, which, generally speaking, depends 
on two means of avenues of reaching people. One is through 
the. ear (auditory) and is illustrated by the lecture. The other 


is through the eye (ocular) and depends almost entirely on 
the reading of the printed page. 

2. At the other end of the service for adults, is the un- 
organized auditory work the utilization of the ear as a me- 
dium in open forum, debate, public lecture course, and the 

3. There is also the unorganized reading work (eye) which 
millions of citizens do every day and which ranges in degree 
of serious purpose and systematic effort up to very highly or- 
ganized effort made by those who pursue systematic courses of 

4. While the eye is very much used in adult education, its 
value thus far, in the thinking of most people, is as a medium 
for gaining knowledge from the printed page. 

5. The possibilities of the use of the eye in other and, for 
many purposes, more efficient ways has not been fully realized. 

6. The appeal to the eye is far more efficient than to the 
ear, in the education of human beings, for many reasons: The 
eye is more rapid. Any human being, freed from the mechanics 
of interpreting words, responds more freely and naturally to 
the concrete presentation of the thing itself. Interest in what 
we see is usually far greater than in what we hear. Sustained 
attention is much easier to gain through the visualization 
of things than through the ear or the printed word. The 
effective appeal through the eye is far greater than through 
the ear. We forget what we hear much quicker than what we 

7. Language cannot describe what visualization shows. 
Travel is more educative to any person than any textbook 
on geography or any story of another's travels. Even many 
kinds of pure information are best taught by charts, diagrams 
and pictures. The appeal to the emotions is greater through 
the eye. What might be called intangibles, such as patriotism, 
honesty, the 'square deal/ loyalty and unselfishness can be 
illustrated and inculcated by dramatization and pageant when 
mere words fail. All these things have made the play and the 



'movie' probably our most powerful agencies for teaching 
(when used rightly) and are gradually introducing visualiza- 
tion as a teaching device into the most progressive of the regu- 
lar schools. 

8. Any democratic program for adult education for ordi- 
nary people will fail if it does not recognize and use to the full 
the eye as a medium of education wherever the appeal to the 
eye gets better results than the appeal to the ear. 

9. Below are given rough and merely illustrative analyses of 
the use of the eye and the ear. They involve the idea that when 
you read a book you are in a sense listening to somebody talk 
you are receiving words for interpretation. Consequently, 
the use of the eye on the printed page is classified under the 
ear, as distinguished from its use in the case of the 'movie' or 

Devices Using 

The eye as a medium 

The ear as a medium 









Still picture 









Symbolic rep- 





Art exhibit 



Museum exhibit 




Shop work 

Open forum 


Home econom- 



ics practice 



Farm project 

Nature study 




Agencies Using 

The eye as a medium The ear as a medium 

'Movie* house Lodge (ceremonials) Schools, including 
Theater Church (ceremonials) vocational schools 

Art gallery Art society Newspaper 

Museum Newspaper (illustra- Magazine 

Zoological garden tive supplement) Usual lecture course 
Illustrated lecture Vocational schools Church 

course Fraternal order 

Schools in their use Political party 

of visual system Literary and musical 

devices of all clubs 


An Analysis of the Methods Used by Agencies 

"The table given below represents the composite results of 
the scoring recently done by twelve students in a class in 
social agencies at one college of education. It will be noted 
that the first thirteen agencies listed are recognized agencies 
in adult education. Boy Scouts, the liberal arts 1 college and 
the college of education are also listed for purposes of com- 
parison. The Sub-committee assumes no responsibility for 
this scoring, but offers it as the honest opinion of a group fairly 
well acquainted by experience with the agencies scored. Of 
course each of these agencies varies considerably as to the 
type of service rendered in different localities: 


Percentage Distribution of Methods of Instruction in Various 


Agencies Instruction Teaching 

Information Direction Reason Emotions Total 

1. Ordinary evening school 70% 15% 10% 5% 100% 

2. Home 20 60 5 15 100 * 

3. Correspondence school 20 75 5 100 

4. Theater 5 2 93 100 

5. 'Movies' 10 5 85 100 

6. Radio 90 2 3 5 100 

7. Books (varies tremendously) .50 10 15 25 100 

8. Church 10 10 10 70 100 

9. Fraternal orders 10 10 10 70 100 

10. Public library ....60 30 5 5 100 

11. Newspaper 75 5 5 15 100 

12. County agent in agriculture. 50 40 10 100 

13. Visiting nurses 15 75 5 5 100 

14. Boy Scouts 40 15 15 30 100 

15. Liberal arts college 70 20 10 100 

16. College of education 65 25 10 5 100 

"Comment. While individual scoring would doubtless pro- 
duce a wide Variety of percentages, it is probable that all 
would represent in their general tendency some such results 
as are given above. Such a table shows very clearly the wide 
differences in the extent to which agencies give information 
and direction, or appeal to the reason or the emotions. Accord- 
ing to the table, schools of every kind are strong on the in- 
struction end and weak on the teaching side of their service. 
Books as a whole, with the exception of the Boy Scouts, rate 
highest in their appeal to the reason (thinking). The radio 
is rated almost entirely as an information dispensing agency. 
Visiting nurses, correspondence schools and the home give 
most attention to direction. Theaters and 'movies/ churches 
and fraternal orders (lodges) are the outstanding agencies 
in their use of the emotional appeal. Newspapers are chiefly 
dispensers of facts, but they also have their emotional appeal. 
It was, of course, impossible, to list and rate all agencies. 
Any reader can readily list many others and score them for 

"The significance of the table and the scoring lies not in 
the accuracy of its ratings but in the fact that some agenciea 


are well adapted to one particular form of educational service 
to adults, and not to others. When we look at the demands 
made on citizens and their widely different interests and needs, 
it becomes clear that it will require not one agency but many 
and varied agencies to serve them effectively. Constructive 
work in the field of adult education requires, first of all, a 
recognition of this fact; second, an abandonment of the idea 
that adult education is simply another school job; third, the 
utilization of all agencies; fourth, the improvement of the 
educational service of all agencies; and fifth, a better coor- 
dination of the service of all agencies. 

Some Characteristics of Different Agencies 

"In a rough fashion, most agencies can be classified on any 
one of the following bases. No two of the items have neces- 
sarily any relation to each other. If any illustration does not 
meet with the approval of any reader, he can substitute his 
own. They are used only to explain the meaning of items: 

Item Opposite 

1. Organization flexible 1. Largely inflexible, 
(correspondence schools and 

Americanization classes). 

2. Organized on the oppor- 2. Organized on basis of 
tunity basis (the opportunity prescription (regular evening 
school and the short unit high schools). 

course in evening school). 

3. Organized on the elec- 3. Organized on the pre- 
tive basis (opportunity scription or selective basis 
schools, the county agent (formal evening classes in 
service to farmers and any general subjects). 

service where any group can 
get what they ask for) . 



4. Instruction free (public 
evening schools). 

5. Operates after working 
hours (evening schools, home 
study, books). 

6. Deals with unlimited 
number of groups of citizens 
(newspapers, political par- 
ties) . 

7. Renders an unlimited 
service (U. S. Farm Bureau, 
and the radio) . 

8. Accessibility to service 
by citizens large (agricul- 
tural extension service to 
farmers and correspondence 
schools, the radio, and the 
'movie 7 ). 

9. Instructor and group in 
direct contact (any resident 
school for example). 

10. Instructor experienced 
in what he teaches (Visiting 
Nurse Association and voca- 
tional schools) . 

11. Training has immedi- 
ate value (shop, home, office, 
or farm instruction; profes- 
sional schools). 

12. Uses direct presenta- 
tion (vocational schools and 
political parties). 

13. Teaches (fraternal or- 
der, church, theater, 'movie/ 
any conference, novels). 

14. Objectives of the train- 

4. Must be paid for ('mov- 

5. During working hours 
(shop or home training, part- 
time classes). 

6. Deals only with limited 
number of groups. 

7. Limited service. 

8. Small. 

9. Not in direct contact 
(book or playwright). 

10. Not experienced. 

11. Deferred value. 

12. Unconscious absorption 
(lodge, church, theater, 'mov- 

13. Gives information and 
direction (instruction) (Na- 
tional guard, evening classes 
in regular subjects). 

14. Objectives intangible 


ing tangible (evening trade (church, lodge, theater, cul- 

extension classes and the work tural training) . 
of county agents in agricul- 

15. The eye used as the 15. Ear used as chief med- 
chief medium ('movies/ the- ium (including reading of 
ater, and 'travel schools'). words) (church and school). 

16. Written and spoken 16. Written and spoken 
language used (school). language not used (art gal- 
lery and 'movies'). 


An Analysis of Some Important Agencies and Their 
Maximum Possibilities 

"In this section, the Sub-committee has undertaken, but 
only as illustrative, to point out the possibilities and the lim- 
itations of a few agencies: 

"The moving picture has some tremendous advantages over 
all other agencies in its appeal to the emotions. 1. It depends 
thus far more than any other agency on the eye, which is the 
most effective medium of education. 

2. It has the tremendous advantage of wide service. 

3. It has virtually no limitations in picturing scenes and 
human situations. 

4. It is able to secure a reality or an illusion of reality 
which, generally speaking, is superior to that of the stage. 

5. With the invention of the 'Vitaphone' and the 'Movie- 
tone/ no one can predict the possibilities in the use by the 
'movies' of both the ocular and auditory mediums of appeal. 

6. Essentially the only limitation on the use of the 'movies' 
in adult education is a financial one. 


Is 'the 'movie' being developed up to its possibilities as an 
educational device? No. Can it be so developed? Yes. How can 
this be done? In these ways: 

1. Disentangle the commercial from the educational film. 

2. Disentangle the advertising film from the educational 

3. Determine the educational field in which the moving 
picture is an efficient device. Here is a partial list: 

a. The vivid reproduction of historical scenes. 

b. The vivid reproduction of drama and story. 

c. Truth through allegorical representation. 

d. The graphic representation and interpretation to or- 
dinary men of statistical situations. 

e. Propaganda of the right kind, such as the Community 
Fund appeal. 

f. World geography. 

g. Astronomy, 
h. Nature. 

i. Current events. 

j. Representation of dynamic action not visible to the 
eye, as in physical, chemical, and biological processes. 

k. Industrial, commercial, home and agricultural processes. 

1. The slow camera study of human skills and human 
and animal activities and performances. 

m. The speeding up of processes so as to show quickly 
processes of growth in plants and animals. 

n. The indirect teaching of right human relations by il- 
lustration and emotional appeal. 

An Analysis of the Value of Different Teaching Procedures 

"Below are given a selected list of procedures (methods, 
devices, if you will) which are available for use in adult edu- 
cation. The Sub-committee has no quarrel with any one who 


disagrees with the rating given to the different procedures 
listed. They are purely illustrative, but represent, generally 
speaking, our judgment. 


Formal lecture 





Information or 

Teaching Value 

Instructional Value 

(Appeal to rea- 


son or emotion) 


Very little 


Almost none 

Almost none 

Very high 


Very high 

Capable of 

Very high 

great value 




Very high 


Very high 


Very high 


Very high 



6. Still pictures 

7. Project method 

8. Conference method 

9. Laboratory method 

10. Class discussion method 

11. Use of charts and drawings 


12. Cut-away parts and demonstra- High High 

tion equipment 

13. Debate Little Very high 

14. Open forum Little Very high 

15. Dictionaries and encyclopedias Entirely None 

16. Technical books Chiefly Not much 

17. Trade magazines Chiefly Not much 

18. Story books (novels) Some Very high 

19. Assigned reading Some Very little 

20. Radio Some Very little 

* * * 


An Analysis of the Limitation on Agencies 

"Every agency used in adult education has limitations as to 
what it can do and how far it can do what it undertakes. 

"The table given below lists, for illustration, some of each 
of the two kinds of limitations which will be found among 
agencies in adult education taken as a whole. Some of them 



will apply to one agency and some to another. Probably all 
of them apply to no one agency. 

Limitations on Agencies 


1. Confined to the use of 
ear as a medium (radio). 

2. Confined to the use of 
the eye as a medium 
('movie') . 

3. Procedures adapted to 
teaching, but not to instruc- 
tion (theater). 

4. Procedure adapted to 
instruction, but not to teach- 
ing (lecture). 

5. Instructor and students 
out of contact (home study) . 

6. Confined entirely to 
reading as a device (books). 

7. Confined to giving in- 
dividuals second-hand experi- 
ences and facts (library) . 

8. Restricted as to group 
served (church, fraternal 
order) . 

9. Restricted as to com- 
munities served (art galleries, 
zoological garden, agricultural 
training) , 

10. Restricted as to char- 
acter of service (endowed 
school, library, church), 

11. Restricted by its ob- 
jectives (political party, fra- 
ternal order, college). 


1. Interference of politics. 

2. Interference, of class in- 
terests or prejudices. 

3. Scholastic domination. 

4. Opposition or indiffer- 
ence of responsible authori- 

5. 'Come-and-get-it' atti- 

6. Unsuitable quarters. 

7. Inadequate equipment 
and other facilities. 

8. Lack of sufficient funds. 

9. Too much centraliza- 
tion of authority and respon- 

10. Poor salesmanship. 

11. Absurd requirements 
for selecting or employing in- 

12. Incompetent force of 

13. False psychology. 

14. Wrong pedagogy. 

15. Catering only to cer- 
tain classes. 

16. Traditional notions. 

17. Box-office control. 

18. Assertion of direction 
and censorship prerogative. 

19. Set of mind. 


12. Restricted by the char- 20. Use for adults of poli- 
aeter of its organization cies and methods developed 
(correspondence school, regu- for juveniles, 
lar high school, museum, col- 

The Public Library 

"Our republic, built on the hope of an 'enlightened citizenry,' 
depends (in theory, at least) on its two great public institu- 
tions, the free public school system and the free public library, 
for the training of citizens to take charge of its destinies. 

"The public library is founded on the American belief in the 
power of thought and the American demand that the record 
of thought, as eternized in printed form, be preserved and 
become available for the inspiration and guidance of all of its 
citizens. This deep-rooted belief, made manifest in the thous- 
ands of beautiful buildings scattered all over our land and in 
the millions of volumes gathered together in such public de- 
positories, clearly indicates the outstanding position and the 
great responsibility which must be carried by the public 
library in the matter of adequate adult education. 

"A commission on 'Library and Adult Education* was 

appointed in 1924, by the American Library Association to 
study the 'adult education movement' and the work of the 
libraries for adults and the older boys and girls out of school. 
This commission had the results of studies made under the 
auspices of the Carnegie Corporation of New York covering 
the broader field of adult education in the United States at its 
command, so that its findings were based not only upon its 
own research but also upon the publications of the earlier com- 


mission. The report submitted in 1926, after two years of in- 
tensive study, gives a complete analysis of the situation and 
presents many concrete examples of procedure leading to the 
realization of its aims. 

"The function of the library in adult education, according 
to the report, will resolve itself into three major activities. 
'First of all, and on its own responsibility, the library owes 
consulting and advisory service, supplimented by suitable 
books, to those who wish to pursue their studies alone, rather 
than in organized groups or classes. 

'In the second place, there is the obligation to furnish com- 
plete and reliable information concerning local opportunities 
for adult education available outside the library. 

Thirdly, the library should recognize as a fundamental 
duty the supplying of books and other printed material for 
adult education activities maintained by other organizations.' 
Libraries and Adult Education (American Library Associa- 
tion), p. 9. 

"If the public schools poured forth their hordes trained in 
the ability to secure knowledge from books with reading habits 
well established, and if the public libraries, enormously in- 
creased in numbers, performed their three functions adequately 
there would be comparatively little need for other agencies 
for adult education. However, neither system functions as its 
founders fondly hoped, nor as it will in time. Many factors are 
present which prevent the public library system from being the 
force in the self-development of our people which it should 
be. Some of these factors are inherent in the institution itself, 
some in the ability and characteristics of the people to be 
served, some in the nature of our governing institutions, but 
some are only bound up with the operation of the system and 
as su<ih can be overcome. Every effort is being made by the 
many individuals concerned with the development of the pub- 
lic library system as well as by national library associations to 
analyze these difficulties, to separate the inherent inhibitory 
factors from the operative, and to bring libraries to their full 
measure of usefulness. 




"Scattered throughout this report are declarations of principles and 
policies, analyses, and suggestions with regard to methods, devices, 
and procedures. Had the circumstances under which the report had to 
be prepared been different, it would doubtless have been possible to 
bring all these things, or at least a synopsis of them, together at one 
point. The only summary offered here is in the nature of a series of 
recommendations. Reference to material bearing on each recommenda- 
tion is made, so that any one can readily find the supporting discussion* 

"The Sub-committee makes the following recommendations: 

I. That the Committee on Adult Education of the A. V. A. 
approve the report of the Sub-committee hereby respectfully 

II. That the Committee submit this report to the Associa- 
tion and recommend that the Association also adopt it. 

III. That, in taking these actions, the Committee give spe- 
cial emphasis to these principles and policies as set forth in the 

1. The social necessity, social wisdom, and social justice of 
adult education. 

(See Part I, Sections 2 and 4; Part II, Sections 1, 2, and 4.) 

2. The teachings of the creed of the progressive educator, 
which provide a sound basis for the movement. 

(See Part H, Section 2.) 

3. The educational policies that should be followed in any 
democratic scheme of educational service to citizens. 

(See Part H, Section 3; Part HI, Section 5.) 

4. The inadequacy of our present public and private pro- 
visions for adult education. 

(See Part I, Sections 3 and 4; Part II, Section 3; Part III, Section 5.) 

5. The need for a public program of adult education sup- 
ported in part by public funds. 

(See Part II, Section 4.) 


6. The necessity of local interest, local participation, local 
support and local responsibility (on the part of American com- 
munities) , before we can have a country-wide and democratic 

(See Part I, Section 3; Part II, Section 5; Part HE, Section 4.) 

IV. That the Committee also give special emphasis to 
these methods, devices and procedures in adult education: 

1. The value of the methods of the engineer in making 
analyses, defining problems, locating difficulties, determining 
methods and testing results the need for educational engi- 
neering which will approach the many new and difficult ques- 
tions and issues in adult education from the engineering and 
efficiency standpoint, rather than the theoretical and, perhaps, 
sentimental point of view. 

(See Introduction and illustration, throughout the report, particularly 
in Part IV.) 

2. The efficiency factors that should be safeguarded in the 

(See Part III, Sections 5 and 6.) 

3. The difference between instruction and teaching and the 
need and place of each, in the education of citizens, particu- 
larly of real teaching. 

(See Part I, Section 1; Part IV, Section 1) 

4. The vital importance of analyzing the characteristics of 
adults as contrasted with juveniles, and of adapting the serv- 
ice to these characteristics. 

(See Part III, Sections 2, 3 3 and 4.) 

5. The equally vital importance of analyzing the possi- 
bilities and limitations of agencies in adult education, so that 
each may be used for the service for which it is best adapted 
and only for such service. 

6. The imperative need for widely diversified service and, 
therefore, for utilizing a wide variety of agencies, methods, 


mediums, and devices, in any national and democratic pro- 
gram of education for mature citizens. 

(See Part HE, Sections 1, 5, and 6; Part I, Sections 1 and 3; Part H, 
Sections 1, 2, and 3; Part IV, all sections.) 

7. The equally imperative need, as an efficiency device, for 
coordinating and correlating, as far as possible, the work of all 
agencies in order that the most extensive service possible 
under the circumstances may be secured for all citizens and 
the best service for every citizen; and in order that this may 
be done with the least expenditure of time, effort, and money. 

8. The necessity, as one of the first constructive steps, that 
an educational engineer for adult education be set at work in 
every American community (where this is possible, at least) 
this engineer to be charged with the responsibility for discover- 
ing and making articulate the educational needs and wants of 
citizens; for serving as an educational clearing-house; and for 
outlining and coordinating all available agencies 'and services, 
local, state, and national. 

V. That the Committee, in recommending the approval of 
this report by the A. V. A., take these additional steps: 

1. Ask the Association, in taking favorable action, as above 
outlined, on this report, to regard it as a preliminary report 
a report which, as a first step, proposes principles and policies; 
gives a general picture of the present situation; makes rough 
analyses of problems and conditions, resources and limitations; 
outlines, by illustration, -a method of approach; and, in short, 
blazes the trail for further investigation and report. 

2. Ask the Association to manifest the interest and respon- 
sibility of vocational educators for the further education of 
the ordinary citizen by authorizing and instructing the Execu- 
tive Committee to do these things: 

A. Continue the study of adult education. 

B. Appoint a suitable committee for this purpose. 

C. Define the objectives of the work of this committee. 


D. Have this committee make a report at the next annual 

AUTHOR'S NOTE. This report was unanimously adopted in its entirety 
at the Los Angeles meeting of the American. Vocational Association, 
in December, 1927. 



This appendix is included because of the seeming de- 
sirability of illustrating rather complete sets of adminis- 
trative forms used in evening school systems in cities of 
various sizes. It supplements Chapter VI, "Enrolling," 
and Chapter VII, "Records and Reports." 

I. Madison, Wisconsin 

Madison is a city of 50,000 population. The evening 
school system is composed of six centers: a large voca- 
tional school, quite cosmopolitan in character, and five 
others. The five smaller centers emphasize Americaniza- 
tion subjects. This type of organization is common in 
cities of this size, and to a considerable extent also in a 
number which are larger. The author is indebted to A. R. 
Graham, Director of Vocational Education and Evening 
Schools, for permission to use the forms here illustrated. 

Form 1 illustrates the enrolment blank used. It is three 
by eight inches, perforated and bound in a book. The 
blank is filled out in duplicate, a sheet of paper being 
superimposed on tag board. The four parts of the enrol- 
ment blank are similarly numbered with a stamp. The 
large part of the paper section is sent to the instructor. 
The small paper part is retained by the student. Under- 
neath the paper section, the large part (on tag board) is 
filed in the general office, and the small part or stub is 
left in the book for the auditor's use, 





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Class Card 





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Meeting Nights 

Pupil Report for Month of.. 19.. 

Subject Instructor 

Name of Student in Full 
(Last Name First) 
Arrange Alphabetically 

Session j 




















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32 . 




Form 2 is a five-by-eight class card filled in by the 
teacher for each student, and kept by the teacher. It is 
self-explanatory. This is a Wisconsin State form. 

The registration blank, Form 3 ; is a permanent form 
filed in the general office. It forms a complete registra- 



Madison, Wisconsin ' 

I Evening School Report j 

School Ceater - 


No- Present- 

No* Absent. 

Teacher's Daily Class Report Blank 

tion, and at the close of the instruction the pupil's records 
for his work are added. These latter data are taken from 
the pupil's class card (Form 2). The registration blank 
is five by eight inches. 

Form 4 is a teacher's monthly report of individual 
pupil attendance and grade of work accomplished. This 
provides a picture of pupil progress, class progress and 
the degree of regularity of class attendance. It provides 
a check for teachers and administrator. It is eight and 
one-half by eleven inches. 



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T jft$fy tfie above to IMS a true and correct report of services rendered. 

I oral 

FOR? vi ? 
Pay-',Roll Shott 





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Wisconsin State Pay-Boll 


A daily report of classes, three by five inches (Form 5), 
is sent to the central office immediately after each class 
session. There important data are transferred to a large 
chart quite similar to the one illustrated in Figure 11. 
The daily report and the large chart showing the constant 
state of attendance of all classes give the Director of 
Evening Schools a graphic view of the attendance record 
of all classes. 

The Wisconsin State teacher's service card, five by 
eight inches, printed on both sides (Form 6 [cont.]) is 
self-explanatory. In a similar manner, the local pay-roll 
sheet (Form 7) and a State form for the same purpose 
(Form 8) should be self-explanatory. The local pay-roll 
sheet is eight and one-half by fourteen, and the State 
sheet, nine and one-half by twelve inches. 

The following instructions to evening school teachers 
of Madison are suggestive of the way in which specific 
directions for the operation of evening classes may be 
prepared for distribution each year. 


"Madison, Wisconsin 
"Evening School Department 

"Item I. Evening School Calendar: 

Oct. 3~Nov. 4 let Quarter of 5 weeks 
Nov. 7~Dec. 16 2d Quarter of 6 weeks 
Jan. 2-Feb. 10 3d Quarter of 6 weeks 
Feb. 13-Mar. 23 4th Quarter of 6 weeks 


"Item II. Classes are to be called at 7:15 and continue until 
9:00 o'clock. Instructors are asked to be in their 
assigned rooms at 7:00 o'clock so as to be free for 
conferences with students enrolled for work. 

"Item III. Urge promptness and regularity in attendance on 
the part of -students assigned to you, as it will be 
necessary this year to dissolve classes where at- 
tendance drops below an average of 12. Please in- 
form your classes of this. 

"Item IV. You will find in the main office a post-office box 
in which will be placed notices pertaining to work 
as a member of the evening school staff. Call for 
these notices on the first assignment of each week. 

"Item V. Fill in with ink and in duplicate form V-7 'Teach- 
ers Service Card* and leave with the Secretary in 
the office next week. 

"Item VI. The Monthly Report is to be turned into the 
office by the last day of each month. Give the 
names of the pupils enrolled in your classes, ses- 
sions required, sessions attended, and grade of 
work accomplished. Use the standard schedule of 
grading as given below 

Poor 70-50 

Fair 79-84 

Good >,..... 85-92 

Excellent 93-100 

"Item VIL At the end of each evening, turn into the office a 
record of the attendance of the members of your 
class, using the blank 'Evening School Attendance 
Record' for this purpose. In case the office is 
closed, please use the mail slot in the door. 

"Item VIII. Call at the office for foam V~2. For each pupil 
registered in your classes, one of these cards is 
to be made out Thie is to be used as an attendance 
record only and will be left at the school at the 
end of the term on March 23cL 



Name Date as 

Address Phone 

Occupation or position 

What subject are you applying for? 

What is your educational preparation? Give name and location 
of schools 

What teaching experience have you had? 

What practical experience have you had? 


Teacher's Application Blank 


Teacher's Notice of Appointment. 

You have "been appointed as instructor in 
the subject of - 
on the faculty of the Pueblo Vocational Eve- 
ning School, at - for 
the school year beginning - 
and closing - , at 
the salary of $4.00 per session of two hours 
each, or $2.00 per hour, payable monthly. 
Classes meet Monday and Thursday of each week, 
except in special cases* 

Each appointment is contingent upon a 
satisfactory enrolment in the subject for 
which the instructor is appointed. The right 
is reserved to terminate the appointment of 
any instructor at any time for incompetenoy, 
lack of interest or other adequate cause. 

If you accept this appointment, sign the 
blank form below and return it to the Direc- 
tor's office within one week after the receipt 
of this notice. 

........ _ Director. 

I hereby accept the appointment as speci- 
fied above. I understand that the appointment 
carries with it the responsibility for the 
best interests of my class, and my attendance 
at all teacher's meetings. 

Data _ Name _ 

Address - 

Telephone - 

Teacher's Notice of Appointment 


"Item IX. Please do not admit any one to your classes who 
does not present to you the blue form indicating 
that he has been properly registered and that his 
fee has been paid at the office. 

"Item X. Service checks will be issued on the first of each 
month after the monthly reports relative to at- 
tendance -and grades have been filed in the office. 

"A. R. Graham, 

II. Pueblo, Colorado 

Pueblo is a city of 45,000 population. Vocational sub- 
jects are given considerable emphasis. The evening school 
is called an Opportunity School. H. C. Stillman, Director 
of Vocational Education, is also the director of the Op- 
portunity School. The author is indebted to him for the 
following administrative forms used in Pueblo*. Those 
illustrated are quite different in character and purpose 
from others which have been reproduced. They are self- 
explanatory. Particular attention is directed to Form 13, 
a monthly report card of a rather unusual character. 



Address. Telephone 

Occupation. Employer 

Course of study wanted 

Date Enrolled School 

Fee Paid 

Remarks ,. fc .. 

,. ., Instructor 

FORM 11 
Enrolment Card 


4-27 2Ch 

Pueblo Opportunity School 


Instructor . 

New Students 

Dropped Student* 

FORM 12 
Instructor's Daily Class Report 



Month Ending 












8 9 

FORM 13 
Monthly Class Report Card (Pueblo, Colorado) (front) 









Department of &>. mtioiul 3Ewcti 

feti fkatc 

ts is Jta Certify tltat. 

anb haa niaintam^ satjofactonj 


the foiuujuna units in 


^nptritdtttbfnt 0f ^ijwi 



Certifieate of 





III. Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

The administrative forms used in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, are suggestive of large city systems wherein 
duplication of activities is necessary. Milwaukee has a 
population of approximately half a million. The author 
is indebted to the Extension Department of the Public 
Schools for permission to reproduce their forms. Miss 
Dorothy C. Enderis is director of extension activities, 
and Dr. W. W. Theisen is assistant superintendent in 
charge of evening high schools. 










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Academic courses or subjects, 171 

Addresses and talks, 68, 69 

Administration, 6, 138-139; diffi- 
culties met, 328-331; duties, 
271 ; planning year's work, 271, 
272; teachers, 272; for special 
aid, 273; new courses of study, 
274; timing classes, 274, 275; 
fees, 109, 112416, 147, 277, 
278; requisitions, 278; records 
and reports, 278-280, 283; 
school property and equip- 
ment, 280, 281; cooperation, 
with day-school, 281, 282; dis- 
cipline, 282, 283; pay-rolls, 
284; substitutes, 284; exhibits, 
284, 285 ; certificates and diplo- 
mas, 285; physical conditions 
of buildings, 285, 286; voca- 
tional guidance, 286, 287; di- 
rection of assistants, 287 

Adult education: in the typical 
American community, 304, 
305; must choose between the 
academic or directive theory 
and the service theory, 317 

Advertising, 39, 40; nature of, 42- 
44, 276; posters, 44, 46; cir- 
culars, 49-59; letters, 50-64; 
news stories, 64-66 ; newspaper 
advertisements, 66-68; moving 
picture, 68; street car, 68; ad- 
dresses, 68, 69; displays, 69, 
70; monthly reports to super- 
intendent, 125, 126; cost, 147 

Agencies influencing development, 

Agricultural courses or subjects, 

Aids for instruction: plans, 251, 
252; Iowa series, 252, 253 

Aid: State, 18, 24, 128, 129, 147; 
federal. 24, 129, 167 ; allotment 
of funds, 221, 222; bases of al- 
lotment, 222, 223; teachers 1 
salaries, 266; supervisors* sal- 
aries, 268; administration of, 

Americanization, 9; need for, 19, 
20, 30; location, 34; aid, 129, 
219, 220; subjects offered, 171; 
courses of study available, 186, 

Analysis of the demands of this 
democracy on all normal citi- 
zens, 323 

Annual report, 134, 135, 140-150; 
value of, 140 

Apprentices, 21, 22 

Art courses or subjects, 173, 174 

Assistant superintendent, 262 

Attendance, 10, 14 ; in London, 26 ; 
blanks, 108-110, 123; variation, 
121, 122; chart, 131-133, 380, 
144; repeated, 146; regularity 
in, 155-157, 168, 169, 247; need 
for records of, 263 ; observation 
by administrator, 283 

Budget, 147; records, 278 


Certificates and diplomas, 134, 135, 
285, 374, 376, 377; require- 
ments for, 273 

Certification of teachers, 126-127, 
163, 267 



Characteristics of adults, 324-326 

Circulars, 49-59 

Citizenship records, 129 

Classes: establishing new, 149, 150- 
152 ; exploratory, 151 ; continu- 
ing, 152; dropping, 153, 154; 
receiving aid, 223-225; dove- 
tailing, 275 

Class instruction, 247 

Commercial courses or subjects, 
171, 172 

Comparative public and private 
support, 303, 307 

Comparison of number of students, 
by age, sex, classes, 144 

Cost of instruction and adminis- 
tration, 143, 144, 147 

Cost per pupil-hour of instruction, 
142, 144; reducing unit costs, 

Courses offered, 143, 145; voca- 
tional, 166, 167, 181, 182; 
Americanization, 171 j aca- 
demic, 171; commercial, 171, 
172; physical education, 172, 
173; art, 173, 174; agricultural, 
174; home-making, 176-177; 
trade and industrial, 176-181 

Courses of study, 9, 12 ; variety of, 
29; necessity for, 33, 34; length 
of, 38; revision of, 87, 88, 160, 
161, 189-191; definition of, 184; 
content, 185-187; naming, 187; 
developing new, 187, 189, 274; 
examples of, 189-196; for 
teacher training, 268 

Cumulative term or monthly at* 
tendance reports, 122-125, 361, 
372, 373, 381, 382 

Cuiriculum, 165-182 


Daily report blanks, 362, 371 
Demands on the modern citizen, 


Democracy : equality of opportun- 
ity, 306; real business of, 306; 
as an experiment, 307; wide- 
spread intelligence our bul- 

wark, 307; every man counts, 
307, 308; real resources, 307; 
mass intelligence vital, 308; 
standards of, 308; summary, 
309; pursuit of happiness, 310 
Demonstration method, 249-251 
Diplomas and certificates, admin- 
istration of, 273 
Director of vocational education, 


Discipline, 8, 155, 157, 282, 283 
Discontinuing established classes, 

149, 153 
Displays, 69, 70, 169, 284, 285 


Educational service of a democ- 
racy should serve all levels of 
intelligence, 316 

Efficiency factors in adult educa- 
tion, 335-337 

Enderis, Dorothy C, t 378 

Enrolling : previous to school open- 
ing, 95-98; on the first night, 
98-101, 142, 143; double en- 
rolment, 102, 103; physical ar- 
rangements, 102-114, 276; 
cards, 104412; fees, 109, 112- 
116; planning, 277 

Enrolment table, 14; blanks or 
forms, 82-85, 104-112, 357-378, 

Establishing new classes, 150-152; 
to relieve congestion in estab- 
lished classes, 151, 152 

Evening school: nature of, 3; ob- 
jectives of, 3; most important 
problems of, 4; $e& oho Ad- 

Exploratory courses, 151 

Extension, agricultural, 19 


Faculty "spirit," 75, 76, 287 
Federal aid, 24, 129; reimburse- 
ment, 147, 167; for teachers, 
215, 216; basis of allotment, 



Federal Board for Vocational Edu- 
cation, 6, 220; types of classes 
defined, 177-181, 223; reim- 
bursement for teachers' sal- 
aries, 268 

Federal Bureau of Naturalization, 
281, 283, 284 

Fees: record of, 109; amount of, 
112-113; how levied and re- 
turned, 113-116, 379; numbers 
returned, 147; administration 
of, 277, 278 

Finances, 23, 24; salaries, 32, 33, 
144, 147 

Forms or blanks, 82-85, 104-112. 
118-136, 279, 280, 358-382 

Future poa?ibilities, 10-12 


Graham; A, R. } 357 
Group instruction, 247, 248; se- 
lection of project, 238 


Holidays, 39, 133, 142 
Home-making courses or subjects, 
176, 177 

Imitative method, 231, 232; ia aca- 
demic subjects, 242; in arts 
and craft work, 244, 245 

Improvement of citizens, 12-14; 
citizenship, 171 ; physically, 
172; culturally, 173, 174 

Individual differences, 91, 92, 208, 
209, 230, 325, 326; in physical 
education, 245, 246; analysis 
of adult, 324-326 

Individual: pupil record or class 
card, 119, 359 ; instruction, 248 

Instruction sheets, 232-237 

Instructions to teachers, 75, 76-93, 
366, 367, 370 

Instructors' application blank, 368 

Inventive method, 239; in aca- 
demic subjects, 242 

Itinerant teacher-traoners, 163, 164, 

Job sheets, 232, 234-236 

Lecture method, 244 

Lesson plans, 89, 90; formal, 196, 

197; examples, 197-199 
Lessons offered per class: numbers 

of, 145; administration of, 274. 


Letters, advertising, 61-64 
Library records, 129, 130 
Literature of evening schools, 264; 

(see oho References at close of 

each chapter) 
Local responsibility and support, 

Location of evening classes, 18, 19. 

22, 25; housing, 34-36; physical 

conditions, 285, 286 
Lynn, Professor J. V., 252 


Methods, 6, 90, 91 ; changing, 160, 
161; lesson plans, 196-199; 
imitative, 231, 232, 244, 245; 
project, 237; inventive, 239; 
selection of work, 239-241 : su 
peryised study, 243; socialized 
recitation, 243; question and 
answer, 244; lecture, 244; rea- 
soning, 246 ; demonstration, 
249-251; in various agencies, 

Mimeographed material, for teach- 
ers, 75, 163; lesson plans, 198, 
199; job sheets, 234-237; from 
supervisors, 263, 266 

Moonlight schools. 18 

Moving picture advertising, 68 


Need for flexible and changing 

program, 332-334 

Newspaper advertising and stories, 
' 64-68 



Notices: to pupils, 156; to teach- 
ers, 73, 74, 369 

Objectives, 3; main, 8, 9 
Other adult educational facilities: 
International Harvester Com- 
pany, 19; Y.M.C.A., 20, 172; 
Y.W.C.A., 20, 172; correspond- 
ence schools, 20; part-time 
schools, 21; others, 297, 298, 
318; characteristics of, 344- 
346; analysis of, 346, 347; lim- 
itations on, 348-350 

Part-time school, 21; laws, 20, 21 

Pay-rolls, 122, 130, 131; blanks, 
facing page 365, 366; making, 

Per cent of attendance : by classes, 
144, 145; for return of enrol- 
ment fee, 144 

Periodic reports, 80, 81, 108-110, 

Periodical class attendance re- 
ports, 120-125, 361, 371 

Permanent school records, 104, 
105, 108, 119, 120 

"Personal Management Problems," 
Iowa series, 253-257 

Physical education courses or sub- 
jects, 172, 173 

Physical growth, 140-142; admin- 
istration of, 273, 274 

Picture of present conditions, 301- 

Plans for current year, 76; admin- 
istration of, 271-272 

Posters, 44, 46 

Price, RicbtfH R. 3 

Principle of public support, 318- 

Problems of evening school, 4, 28, 
86, 87, 301, 302, 319-321, 326- 
328; point of view of public, 
330; on part of people, 330 

Process sheets, 233, 236, 237 

Project method, 237-239; in aca- 
demic subjects, 242 
Proposed program, 148, 271-272 
Prosser, Dr. Charles A., 13 
Psychology, 7, 31, 89 
Public library, 350; function of, in 

adult education, 351 
Pupil-hour, 121; numbers of, 144; 

cost of, 154, 155 
Pupil interest, devices used to 

stimulate, 155-158, 230, 231, 

257, 341 
Pupils: above compulsory age, 5, 

6; adults, 6, 7, 21; interested 

groups, 22, 23; diversity of, 

229, 230 
Pupils attending more than one 

year, number of, 146 
Pupil selection of project, 238, 240; 

guided, 240 
Pupil survey for establishing new 

classes, 146, 151 


Question and answer method, 244 


Rating of teachers, 216 

Reactionary and progressive edu- 
cators: fight between, 310; 
creed of, 310-312; results from 
creed, 312-316 

Reasoning, methods, 246 

Recommendations of committee 
on adult education, 352-355 

Records: permanent school, 104, 
105, 108, 119, 120; individual 
Jupil, 119, 359; library, 129, 
130; fees, 109, 112, 113, 113- 
116, 379; citizenship, 129 

Relative value of admit versus 
juvenile education, 305, 306 

Report of American Vocational 
Association: Introduction, 292- 
296; same explanations, 297- 
299; why ^adult education?, 
299-301; picture of present 
conditions, 801-306; social and 



political principles of adult 
education, 306-310; fight be- 
tween progressive and reac- 
tionary educators, 310-316; 
educational policies ma de- 
mocracy, 316-319; principle of 
public support, 318, 319; local 
responsibility and support, 
319-321 ; demands on the mod- 
em citizen, 322, 323; analysis 
of characteristics of adults, 
324-326; suggestions regarding 
wage-earners, 326-328; special 
problemH and remedies of 
adult education, 327-332 ; gen- 
eral implications and deduc- 
ductions, 332-334; efficiency 
factors, 335-337; need for anal- 
ysis, 337-339; agencies, organ- 
ized versus unorganized, 339; 
mediums used by agencies, 
339-342; methods, 342-344; 
characteristics of different 
agencies, 344-346 ; teaching 
procedures, 347, 343; limitation 
on agencies, 348-350; public 
libraries, 350, 351; recommen- 
dations, 352-355 

Reports; to superintendent, 125, 
126; citizenship, 129; periodic, 
80, 81, 108410, 123, 363, 365; 
daily, 362, 371; weekly, 81; 
cumulative term or monthly, 
122-125, 361, 372, 373, 381, 382 

Requisitions for supplies, 130, 278 


Salaries, 32, 33, 148; see also Fi- 

Schedules, 37-39 

School properties and equipment, 

Short unit courses, 7, 38, 89, 179- 
181, 196; versus long unit, 141, 
142, 144, 157-159, 167-169, 175; 
more administration for, 274, 

Size of community, 18, 19 

Smith, Dr. Homer J. 261 

Smith-Hughes Act, 6, 220, 221; 
classes, 22; reimbursement, 
147, 177; teachers, 215, 216; 
allotment of funds, 221, 222; 
administered by, 223; provi- 
sions of, 225-227 

Social and moral values, 14, 15 

Social and political principles of 
adult education, 306-310 

Socialized recitation and discus- 
sion, 243 

Special problems and remedies of 
adult education, 327-332 

State aid, 18, 24, 128, 129; reim- 
bursement, 147; teachers, 215, 
216; how secured, 220; com- 
bined with federal, 219; ad- 
ministered by, 223; for teach- 
ers salaries, 266 

State: board for vocational edu- 
cation, 223; director for vo- 
cational education, 223; super- 
visors, 223, 265, 266 

Stillman, H. C., 370 

Street-car cards, 68 

Subject-matter, 6, 7; physical 
products, 169, 170; see also 
Courses offered 

Subsidized classes, 224, 225, 265 

Substitute teachers, 80, 284 

Supervision : time devoted to, 260, 
261 ; need for, 261 ; those em- 
ployed for, 262; work of, 263; 
weaknesses of, 264, 265; local 
officials for, 267, 268 

Supervisors of day-school, 262 

Systemitization, 118; forms (num- 
ber, size, and complexity), 118, 

Teachers: lack of trained, 12, 112; 
sources of, 25, 31, 32, 209-212; 
substitutes, 80 ; instructions to, 
75, 76-93, 366, 367; dropping, 
159; securing new, 160; dual 
requirements of, 205, 206; per- 
sonal attributes, 206-208, 229; 
training, 212-215; special re- 
quirements, 215, 216; rating, 



216; notice of appointment, 
369; service card, 363, 365 

Teachers' meetings: need for, 73; 
time of, 74; plan for conduct 
of, 74-76; mimeographed di- 
rections, 75; faculty spirit, 75, 
76; plans for current year, 76; 
instructions, 76-93; for train- 
ing, 163, 268; difficulties, 267, 

Teacher selection of projects, 238, 

Teacher training, 86, 87; ade- 
quately trained, 152, 153; in 
service, 162-164, 200, 212-215; 
special requirements, 215, 216; 
itinerant teacher trainers, 163, 
164, 266, 267 ; by local officials, 

Teaching devices, 341; procedures, 
347, 348 

Teaching versus instruction, 298, 

Testing results, 162 

Textbooks, 40 

The Denver Opportunity School, 

Theisen, Dr. W. W., 378 
Time distribution of instruction, 
248, 249 

Time of school, 10, 37-39, 142 271 
272 ' 

Trade and industrial courses, 176- 

Trade extension classes, aid for, 

Types of education offered, 9, 10- 
asked for, 146; in curriculum' 

Unit costs, 154, 155 

Vocational and educational guid- 
ance, 103, 104; by administra- 
tor. 286, 287 

Vocational courses or mibioots 
166, 167, 181, 182 

Vocational subjects, 174-182; 
courses of gtudy, 188-195; <? 
also Courses offered 


WeaknoBses, 10-12 
Weekly report, 81 
What some adults arc now get- 
ting, 302, 303 
Why adult education?, 299-301